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Open AccessArticle

Ultrasonic Technology Applied against Mosquito Larvae

Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to the present contribution.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3546;
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
The effective management of mosquito vectors is a timely challenge for medical and veterinary entomology. In this study, we evaluated the acoustic Larvasonic device to control young instars of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in diverse freshwater environments. Under laboratory conditions, we investigated the effect of exposure time and distance from the transducer on the mortality of larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti. Furthermore, we evaluated the effectiveness of the ultrasound window of the electromagnetic spectrum under different field conditions. Results showed that first and second instar larvae were more sensitive to the frequency range of 18–30 kHz of the Larvasonic device. Ultrasonic waves applied for 180 s at a frequency from 18 to 30 kHz caused 100% larval mortality at a distance of 60 cm from the transducer. No mortality was observed in the non-target copepod Megacyclops formosanus. The exposure to the soundwaves produced by the acoustic larvicidal device over different distances effectively damaged Ae. aegypti through destruction of the larval dorsal tracheal trunk, thorax and abdomen. Overall, results indicated that the Larvasonic device tested can provide an alternative tool to reduce young instar populations of Ae. aegypti, without any effects on non-target aquatic invertebrates like copepods. It turned out to be a useful device for mosquito biocontrol. This technology has a relevant potential to fight the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: mosquito control; ultrasound; electromagnetic control; biological control; Aedes aegypti; Megacyclops formosanus; biosafety mosquito control; ultrasound; electromagnetic control; biological control; Aedes aegypti; Megacyclops formosanus; biosafety
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Kalimuthu, K.; Tseng, L.-C.; Murugan, K.; Panneerselvam, C.; Aziz, A.T.; Benelli, G.; Hwang, J.-S. Ultrasonic Technology Applied against Mosquito Larvae. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3546.

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