The Effects of Corruption in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems on Entrepreneurial Intentions
- The regulative dimension, linked to the laws, rules, norms and government policies that aim to support new firms by reducing the economic risks associated with start-ups and helping entrepreneurs to obtain credit.
- The normative dimension, that refers to culturally shared values regarding the importance of entrepreneurship and being an entrepreneur, and having personal qualities linked to the entrepreneurial field, such as creativity and divergent thinking.
- The cognitive-cultural dimension, that encompasses an individual’s feelings about the extent to which they possess the knowledge and skills required to start and manage a firm and his/her attitudes and perceptions towards entrepreneurship.
2. The Institutional Dimension and Entrepreneurial Intentions
2.1. Entrepreneurial Intentions and Entrepreneurship
2.2. A Differential Analysis of the Effects of Institutional Dimensions on Entrepreneurial Intentions
3. Corruption and Entrepreneurial Intentions
3.1. The Effects of Corruption on Entrepreneurial Intentions: The National Level of Analysis
3.2. The Effects of Corruption on Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Individual Level of Analysis
4. The Influence of National Culture on the Relationship between Corruption and Entrepreneurial Intentions: Interaction across Individual and National Levels of Analysis
- Individualism/collectivism (IND): This dimension refers to the extent people tend to act as individuals or as members of a community. In other words, this dimension investigates whether people base their decisions on their personal needs or on the needs of their group.
- Power distance (PD): this dimension refers to the extent to which people accept, within a country, that economic or political power is assigned unequally.
- Uncertainty avoidance (UA): this dimension refers to the extent to which a specific society feels threatened by ambiguous situations and tends to reduce the occurrence of these situations by creating more opportunities for career stability; establishing a lot of formal norms and rules; rejecting abnormal behavior and ideas; believing that there is an absolute truth; and attributing great value to specific expertise.
- Masculinity/femininity (MAS): this dimension refers to how many of the shared cultural values within a country can be associated with an ideal model of masculinity—such as assertiveness, the desire for domination over another person, and economic power, success and competitiveness, rather than being linked to characteristics of an ideal feminine model—such as importance being attributed to friendly relationships and cooperation as a way to achieve economic and physical safety.
- National cultures characterized by a high level of power distance predispose the population to a high level of corruption since managerial and economic decisions are made by bosses at their sole discretion, instead of being based on meritocracy, accountability and responsibility. This situation leads people to become obsequious and show formal respect to these bosses, who might base their decisions on corruption or nepotism (Husted 1999; Davis and Ruhe 2003; Getz and Volkema 2001).
- National Cultures characterized by high levels of uncertainty avoidance may predispose the population to a high level of corruption since there are shared values and beliefs that corruption can be an effective tool to reduce the risks and ambiguity related to entrepreneurial activities, providing entrepreneurs with undeserved success (Husted 1999; Getz and Volkema 2001).
- National cultures characterized by a high level of Masculinity predispose the population to higher levels of corruption since they transmit shared values that view corruption as a means justified by the ultimate end. For example, people may display a high degree of tolerance towards ethically controversial activities that facilitate the satisfaction of entrepreneurs’ desires for success. (Husted 1999; Davis and Ruhe 2003).
The Slippery Slope Phenomenon: The Effect of Corruption on Entrepreneurial Intentions at the Intra-Individual Level of Analysis
6. Conclusions and Limitations
Conflicts of Interest
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Ceresia, F.; Mendola, C. The Effects of Corruption in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems on Entrepreneurial Intentions. Adm. Sci. 2019, 9, 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9040088
Ceresia F, Mendola C. The Effects of Corruption in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems on Entrepreneurial Intentions. Administrative Sciences. 2019; 9(4):88. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9040088Chicago/Turabian Style
Ceresia, Francesco, and Claudio Mendola. 2019. "The Effects of Corruption in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems on Entrepreneurial Intentions" Administrative Sciences 9, no. 4: 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9040088