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Article

Application of Calcified Structures in Fish as Indicators of Metal Exposure in Freshwater Ecosystems

1
Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Chair of General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
3
FFoQSI—Austrian Competence Centre for Feed and Food Quality, Safety & Innovation, FFoQSI GmbH, Technopark 1D, 3430 Tulln, Austria
4
Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5
Vodovod d.o.o., Spire Brusine 17, 23000 Zadar, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Claude Fortin
Environments 2022, 9(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9020014
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 13 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Environments in 2021)
Although there are common and well-established bioindicator organisms and tissues, there is still a need for reliable and sensitive bioindicators in aquatic environments. In the present pilot study, calcified structures in fish were applied as indicators of metal exposure in combination with commonly used fish soft tissues and intestinal parasites, therefore comprising short- and long-term indicators. Patterns of metal accumulation and distribution in soft (muscle, liver) and hard (scales, otoliths) tissues of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) and their intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans (Dentitruncus truttae Sinzar, 1955), from the Krka River influenced by industrial and municipal wastewaters were estimated and compared. Most elements had higher levels in acanthocephalans, scales and liver than muscle and otoliths, possibly reflecting differences in metal uptake routes, tissue function and metabolic activity. Despite the recorded differences in metal contents, all applied bioindicators reflected environmental conditions in a similar way, indicating higher levels of most elements in fish from the contaminated rather than from the reference site. Acanthocephalans were confirmed as sensitive bioindicators due to effective metal accumulation capacity, while the combination of soft and hard tissues provided extended temporal information on metal exposure. Wastewater impact was evidenced as moderate metal pollution by all applied indicators and pointed to present but also long-term disturbances in the Krka River and the importance of continuous monitoring and protective actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: otoliths; scales; muscle; liver; acanthocephalans; Salmo trutta; Krka River; metal contamination otoliths; scales; muscle; liver; acanthocephalans; Salmo trutta; Krka River; metal contamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Filipović Marijić, V.; Mijošek, T.; Dragun, Z.; Retzmann, A.; Zitek, A.; Prohaska, T.; Bačić, N.; Redžović, Z.; Grgić, I.; Krasnići, N.; Valić, D.; Kapetanović, D.; Žunić, J.; Ivanković, D.; Vardić Smrzlić, I.; Erk, M. Application of Calcified Structures in Fish as Indicators of Metal Exposure in Freshwater Ecosystems. Environments 2022, 9, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9020014

AMA Style

Filipović Marijić V, Mijošek T, Dragun Z, Retzmann A, Zitek A, Prohaska T, Bačić N, Redžović Z, Grgić I, Krasnići N, Valić D, Kapetanović D, Žunić J, Ivanković D, Vardić Smrzlić I, Erk M. Application of Calcified Structures in Fish as Indicators of Metal Exposure in Freshwater Ecosystems. Environments. 2022; 9(2):14. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9020014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Filipović Marijić, Vlatka, Tatjana Mijošek, Zrinka Dragun, Anika Retzmann, Andreas Zitek, Thomas Prohaska, Niko Bačić, Zuzana Redžović, Ivana Grgić, Nesrete Krasnići, Damir Valić, Damir Kapetanović, Jakov Žunić, Dušica Ivanković, Irena Vardić Smrzlić, and Marijana Erk. 2022. "Application of Calcified Structures in Fish as Indicators of Metal Exposure in Freshwater Ecosystems" Environments 9, no. 2: 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments9020014

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