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Water Quality Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Sources Using a Water Quality Index Method: A Case Study of a Peri-Urban Town in Southwest, Nigeria

1
Department of chemistry, Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun, Osun State 234101, Nigeria
2
Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti 360231, Nigeria
3
Department of Biology, Osun State College of Education, Ila Orangun, Osun State 234101, Nigeria
4
Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020023
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract

Sustainable access to safe drinking water remains a global problem as more people in the world still consume water from unimproved sources. This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of 12 different water sources and 2 treated water used by a peri-urban town in the Southwest region of Nigeria to assess their suitability for drinking and domestic use. Water quality parameters studied include pH, temperature, acidity, total alkalinity, chloride content and total CO2. A Flame Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, and Pb in the water samples. The total coliform was determined using the most probable number technique while a qualitative method was used to detect the presence of faecal coliform and E. coli in the water samples. All the physicochemical water quality parameters complied with regulatory standards. Similarly, most of the heavy metals also complied except for some sites. Faecal coliform and E. coli tested positive for all the samples except one of the tap water sample. Majority of the water samples (86%) were rated as excellent based on the physicochemical parameters. One sample each was rated as having poor and good water quality, respectively. All the samples tested positive for faecal coliform bacteria and E. coli except one (treated water). It is recommended that Microbial water quality parameters be included in all Water Quality Index (WQI) analyses in order to give the true status of the quality of a water resource. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; water quality index; water supply; public health; heavy metals; microbial contamination water quality; water quality index; water supply; public health; heavy metals; microbial contamination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Olasoji, S.O.; Oyewole, N.O.; Abiola, B.; Edokpayi, J.N. Water Quality Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Sources Using a Water Quality Index Method: A Case Study of a Peri-Urban Town in Southwest, Nigeria. Environments 2019, 6, 23.

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