Next Article in Journal
Sustainable Concrete Performance—CO2-Emission
Previous Article in Journal
Socioeconomic Indicators for the Evaluation and Monitoring of Climate Change in National Parks: An Analysis of the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park (Spain)
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Environments 2018, 5(2), 26;

Intrahousehold Relations and Environmental Entitlements of Land and Livestock for Women in Rural Kano, Northern Nigeria

School of Geography, Earth & Environment. Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1183 KB, uploaded 13 February 2018]   |  


Gender relations mediate access to the environment in a variety of ways, through formal institutions such as customary law or informal social norms operating at the household level. This is particularly so in rural areas of the global south that are highly dependent on natural resources for livelihoods. The environmental entitlements framework is useful in examining the influence of informal institutions on access to environmental resources among differentiated social actors. In this paper, we use the environmental entitlements framework to map entitlements to land and livestock, and explore the capabilities they provide for women in rural northern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of social norms governing marriage and inheritance on women’s entitlements to land and livestock. The study methods were qualitative and used in-depth interviews and household case studies. We find that environmental entitlements of land and livestock for women are mediated by their relationships to men, through marriage or kinship, and through the different intra household arrangements within marriage, including seclusion, non-seclusion, and polygyny. Women are able to gain command of natural resources through negotiations within these relationships and within the wider social norms governing Hausa society. While these institutions can restrict the capabilities women derive from natural resources, women may delay or forgo entitlements as a means of enhancing their wellbeing. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental entitlements; land; livestock; gender; households; northern Nigeria environmental entitlements; land; livestock; gender; households; northern Nigeria

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Umaru Baba, S.; van der Horst, D. Intrahousehold Relations and Environmental Entitlements of Land and Livestock for Women in Rural Kano, Northern Nigeria. Environments 2018, 5, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top