Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Perspectives on Emotion, Behavior, and Cognition
Previous Article in Special Issue
Beatrice Hinkle and the Early History of Jungian Psychology in New York
Open AccessArticle

Symbol/Meaning Paired-Associate Recall: An “Archetypal Memory” Advantage?

Department of Psychology, University of Basel, Missionstrasse60/62, Basel 4055, Switzerland
Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
School of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Balzerstrasse 2, Bern 3000, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 541-561;
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Psychology: Theory and Practice)
PDF [152 KB, uploaded 9 October 2013]


The theory of the archetypes and the hypothesis of the collective unconscious are two of the central characteristics of analytical psychology. These provoke, however, varying reactions among academic psychologists. Empirical studies which test these hypotheses are rare. Rosen, Smith, Huston and Gonzales proposed a cognitive psychological experimental paradigm to investigate the nature of archetypes and the collective unconscious as archetypal (evolutionary) memory. In this article we report the results of a cross-cultural replication of Rosen et al. conducted in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. In short, this experiment corroborated previous findings by Rosen et al., based on English speakers, and demonstrated a recall advantage for archetypal symbol meaning pairs vs. other symbol/meaning pairings. The fact that the same pattern of results was observed across two different cultures and languages makes it less likely that they are attributable to a specific cultural or linguistic context. View Full-Text
Keywords: archetypes; collective unconscious; memory; cross-cultural study archetypes; collective unconscious; memory; cross-cultural study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sotirova-Kohli, M.; Opwis, K.; Roesler, C.; Smith, S.M.; Rosen, D.H.; Vaid, J.; Djonov, V. Symbol/Meaning Paired-Associate Recall: An “Archetypal Memory” Advantage? Behav. Sci. 2013, 3, 541-561.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Behav. Sci. EISSN 2076-328X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top