The correlation between aspirin sensitivity, asthma, and nasal polyposis was recognized in the early 20th century. Today, this classic triad of symptoms, eponymously named Samter’s Triad, is known as aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease affects approximately 0.3–0.9% of the general population in the USA and approximately 7% of asthmatic patients. The management of AERD is challenging as no single modality has proven to have high rates of symptom control. Consequently, disease management typically involves a multimodality approach across both medical and surgical disciplines. This review describes the epidemiology of AERD and the current state-of-the-art as it relates to the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease process. A significant proportion of the review is focused on the appropriate diagnostic workup for AERD patients including the utility of aspirin provocation testing. The spectrum of medical treatments, including aspirin desensitization and recently introduced immunotherapies, are discussed in detail. Furthermore, surgical approaches to disease control, including advanced endoscopic techniques, are reviewed and treatment outcomes presented.
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