Moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in close collaboration of a multidisciplinary team consisting of different medical specialists such as intensivists, neurosurgeons, neurologists, as well as ICU nurses, physiotherapists, and ergo-/logotherapists. Major goals include all measurements to prevent secondary brain injury due to secondary brain insults and to optimize frame conditions for recovery and early rehabilitation. The distinction between moderate and severe is frequently done based on the Glascow Coma Scale and therefore often is just a snapshot at the early time of assessment. Due to its pathophysiological pathways, an initially as moderate classified TBI may need the same sophisticated surveillance, monitoring, and treatment as a severe form or might even progress to a severe and difficult to treat affection. As traumatic brain injury is rather a syndrome comprising a range of different affections to the brain and as, e.g., age-related comorbidities and treatments additionally may have a great impact, individual and tailored treatment approaches based on monitoring and findings in imaging and respecting pre-injury comorbidities and their therapies are warranted.
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