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Apoptosis: Activation and Inhibition in Health and Disease

1
Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
2
Departamento de Microbiología, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Anáhuac México Campus Norte, Huixquilucán Estado de México 52786, México
3
Medical IMPACT, Infectious Disease Department, Mexico City 53900, Estado de México, Mexico
4
Unidad de Investigación UNAM-INC, División Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, Mexico City, 14080, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6030054
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
There are many types of cell death, each involving multiple and complex molecular events. Cell death can occur accidentally when exposed to extreme physical, chemical, or mechanical conditions, or it can also be regulated, which involves a genetically coded complex machinery to carry out the process. Apoptosis is an example of the latter. Apoptotic cell death can be triggered through different intracellular signalling pathways that lead to morphological changes and eventually cell death. This is a normal and biological process carried out during maturation, remodelling, growth, and development in tissues. To maintain tissue homeostasis, regulatory, and inhibitory mechanisms must control apoptosis. Paradoxically, these same pathways are utilized during infection by distinct intracellular microorganisms to evade recognition by the immune system and therefore survive, reproduce and develop. In cancer, neoplastic cells inhibit apoptosis, thus allowing their survival and increasing their capability to invade different tissues and organs. The purpose of this work is to review the generalities of the molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways involved in apoptosis induction and inhibition. Additionally, we compile the current evidence of apoptosis modulation during cancer and Leishmania infection as a model of apoptosis regulation by an intracellular microorganism. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; cancer; cell death; infection; Leishmania apoptosis; cancer; cell death; infection; Leishmania
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Solano-Gálvez, S.G.; Abadi-Chiriti, J.; Gutiérrez-Velez, L.; Rodríguez-Puente, E.; Konstat-Korzenny, E.; Álvarez-Hernández, D.-A.; Franyuti-Kelly, G.; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, L.; Vázquez-López, R. Apoptosis: Activation and Inhibition in Health and Disease. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 54.

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