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Open AccessArticle

Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Gonda 19, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Academic Editor: Antoni Torres
Med. Sci. 2016, 4(4), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4040018
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men. View Full-Text
Keywords: metoprolol; pharmacokinetics; gender differences; modeling; monolix metoprolol; pharmacokinetics; gender differences; modeling; monolix
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Eugene, A.R. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 18.

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