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Carbonate Neoformations on Modern Buildings and Engineering Structures in Tyumen City, Russia: Structural Features and Development Factors

1
Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Tyumen, Osipenko St. 2, 625002 Tyumen, Russia
2
Oil and Gas Geology Research and Educational Center, Tyumen Industrial University, Volodarskogo St. 56, 625000 Tyumen, Russia
3
Laboratory of Regional Geology and Geotectonics, The Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of the Ural Branch (UB) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Akademika Vonsovskogo St. 15, 620016 Ekaterinburg, Russia
4
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Ave. 2 bldg 5, 634028 Tomsk, Russia
5
Centre for Collective Use “Biotest-Nano”, National Research Tomsk State University, Lenina Ave. 36, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030128
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoscience of the Built Environment 2019 Edition)
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of studying the development of calcite neoformations on the surfaces of modern buildings within the city of Tyumen. The objects of the study were carbonate crusts and stalactite-like bodies formed on the surfaces of five representative buildings in the city center. Research methods included visual diagnostics, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and semi-quantitative determination of the mineral composition by X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of the study show that calcite is the main component of all carbonate crusts, while other minerals were found in small quantities. The microscopic studies revealed the differences in morphology of crusts developing on horizontal and vertical surfaces. The mycelium of fungi (presumably of the Penicillium group), represented by filamentous and often hollow hyphae covered with calcite, as well as relics of bacterial colonies were found in all studied samples. It was noted that the mycelium forms the structural frame of carbonate crusts and stalactites. Studies have shown that the prokaryotic–eukaryotic communities are responsible for the high rate of the urban speleothem growth and play the main role in calcite precipitation at the initial stages of their development. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcite; urban speleothems; biomineralization; fungi; crusts calcite; urban speleothems; biomineralization; fungi; crusts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Novoselov, A.; Konstantinov, A.; Leonova, L.; Soktoev, B.; Morgalev, S. Carbonate Neoformations on Modern Buildings and Engineering Structures in Tyumen City, Russia: Structural Features and Development Factors. Geosciences 2019, 9, 128.

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