Pipelines are exposed to the severe threat of natural disasters, where the damage caused by landslides are particularly bad. Hence, in the route arrangement and maintenance management of pipeline projects, it is particularly important to evaluate the regional landslide hazards in advance. However, most models are based on the subjective determination of evaluation factors and index weights; this study establishes a quantitative hazard assessment model based on the location of historical landslides and the Levenberg–Marquardt Back Propagation (LM-BP) Neural Network model was applied to the pipeline area. We established an evaluation index system by analyzing the spatial patterns of single assessment factors and the mechanism of landslides. Then, different from previous studies, we built the standard sample matrix of the LM-BP neural network by using interpolation theory to avoid the serious influence of human factors on the hazard assessment. Finally, we used the standard sample matrix and the historical data to learn, train, test, and simulate future results. Our results showed 33 slopes with low hazard (accounting for 10.48% of the total number of slopes and corresponding to approximately 32.63 km2
), 62 slopes with moderate hazard (accounting for 19.68% of the total number of slopes and corresponding to approximately 65.53 km2
), 112 slopes with high hazard (accounting for 35.56% of the total number of slopes and corresponding to approximately 123.55 km2
), and 108 slopes with extremely high hazard (accounting for 34.29% of the total number of slopes and corresponding to approximately 150.65 km2
). Local spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that there are significant “high–high” and “low–low” aggregation of landslide hazards in the pipeline area. By comparing the model results with the past landslides, new landslides and landslide potential points, its prediction capability and accuracy were confirmed. On the basis of the results, our study has developed effective risk prevention and mitigation strategies in mountain areas to promote pipeline safety.
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