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Location Modeling of Final Palaeolithic Sites in Northern Germany

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Department of Geography, Physical Geography, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 14, 24118 Kiel, Germany
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Center for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Stiftung Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesmuseen Schloss Gottorf, 24837 Schleswig, Germany
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Johanna Mestorf Academy, Institute of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 3, 24118 Kiel, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(10), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9100430
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 3 October 2019
Location modeling, both inductive and deductive, is widely used in archaeology to predict or investigate the spatial distribution of sites. The commonality among these approaches is their consideration of only spatial effects of the first order (i.e., the interaction of the locations with the site characteristics). Second-order effects (i.e., the interaction of locations with each other) are rarely considered. We introduce a deductive approach to investigating such second-order effects using linguistic hypotheses about settling behavior in the Final Palaeolithic. A Poisson process was used to simulate a point distribution using expert knowledge of two distinct hunter–gatherer groups, namely, reindeer hunters and elk hunters. The modeled points and point densities were compared with the actual finds. The G-, F-, and K-function, which allow for the identification of second-order effects of varying intensity for different periods, were applied. The results reveal differences between the two investigated groups, with the reindeer hunters showing location-related interaction patterns, indicating a spatial memory of the preferred locations over an extended period of time. Overall, this paper shows that second-order effects occur in the geographical modeling of archaeological finds and should be taken into account by using approaches such as the one presented in this paper. View Full-Text
Keywords: location modeling; deductive modeling; spatial point patterns; spatial clustering; fuzzy; Palaeolithic location modeling; deductive modeling; spatial point patterns; spatial clustering; fuzzy; Palaeolithic
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Hamer, W.B.; Knitter, D.; Grimm, S.B.; Serbe, B.; Eriksen, B.V.; Nakoinz, O.; Duttmann, R. Location Modeling of Final Palaeolithic Sites in Northern Germany. Geosciences 2019, 9, 430.

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