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Open AccessArticle

Lateral Momentum Fluxes at the Confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers

Division of Field Engineering for the Environment, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 0608628, Japan
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 7;
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
PDF [2458 KB, uploaded 24 December 2018]


Hydrodynamic zones of river confluences are remarkable not only for the turbulent mixing induced by the shear layer at the center of the mixing interface but also for the lateral momentum fluxes associated with channel topography. Detailed characterizations of lateral momentum transfers in river confluences, however, are few. In this study, contributions to the lateral momentum fluxes in the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers in Brazil were calculated based on a comprehensive set of field data. Results show that the lateral fluxes by the mean flow exceed the turbulent fluxes by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the Reynolds stress along the far field of the Solimões side of the Amazon channel scales with or surpasses the Reynolds stress at the interface with the Negro side. The importance of the shear layer in the lateral mixing is thus overshadowed by the competing hydrodynamic processes. This configuration partially explains the long distance required to complete the mixing of the waters of the two tributary rivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: river confluence; turbulence; momentum flux; field data river confluence; turbulence; momentum flux; field data

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Coutinho de Lima, A. Lateral Momentum Fluxes at the Confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers. Geosciences 2019, 9, 7.

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