Next Article in Journal
Intrusion of Saline Water into a Coastal Aquifer Containing Palaeogroundwater in the Viimsi Peninsula in Estonia
Previous Article in Journal
Constrained Full Waveform Inversion for Borehole Multicomponent Seismic Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
Validating Rainfall-Runoff Modelling Using Satellite-Based and Reanalysis Precipitation Products in the Sre Pok Catchment, the Mekong River Basin
Open AccessArticle

Modeling the Natural Drainage Network of the Grand River in Southern Ontario: Agriculture May Increase Total Channel Length of Low-Order Streams

1
Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
2
Environmental Applied Science and Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010046
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
The Grand River watershed is an important agricultural area in southern Ontario, with several large and growing municipalities. Based on digital elevation models (DEMs), the natural drainage network was modelled to predict flow paths. Channel lengths and locations of the predicted network were compared with a ground-truthed channel network to determine efficacy of the models. Approximately 5% of predicted channels lay >40 m from actual channel locations. This amounted to 388 km of channel that had no corresponding channels in reality. The model was unable to predict, based on topography, 2535 km of actual channel present in the watershed. Channels not anticipated by topography were mostly first-order, with low sinuosity, were most common in areas with high agricultural land use, and are likely excavated extensions to headwater streams to facilitate drainage. In addition, this study showed that Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models produced using different DEM resolutions did not predict significantly different stream flows, even when resolution was as low as 200 m. However, these low resolution DEMs did result in under-prediction of sediment export entering Lake Erie, most likely because the low resolution maps failed to account for small localized areas of high slope that would have relatively higher rates of erosion. View Full-Text
Keywords: stream network delineation and analysis; DEM resolution and watershed modeling; Soil and Water Assessment Tool application to watershed processes; agriculture as a major land cover modifier stream network delineation and analysis; DEM resolution and watershed modeling; Soil and Water Assessment Tool application to watershed processes; agriculture as a major land cover modifier
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hanief, A.; Laursen, A.E. Modeling the Natural Drainage Network of the Grand River in Southern Ontario: Agriculture May Increase Total Channel Length of Low-Order Streams. Geosciences 2019, 9, 46.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop