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Structural Evolution of the Kohat Fold and Thrust Belt in the Shakardarra Area (South Eastern Kohat, Pakistan)

1
Department of Geophysics, School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bahria University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
4
Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospace Information Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2018, 8(9), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8090311
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
The Kohat fold and thrust belt, located in North-Western Pakistan, is a part of Lesser Himalaya developed due to the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The structural evolution records of this area indicate that it consists of tight anticlines and broad syncline structures. Previous studies show that the structural pattern of this area has been produced due to multiple episodes of deformation. In the present research, 2D seismic data has been integrated with our field surveys to clarify the role of active strike-slip faulting in reshaping the surface structures of Shakardarra, Kohat. At the surface, doubly plunging anticlines and synclines are evolved on evaporites as detachment folds, truncated by thrust faults along their limbs. Seismic data show that the thrust faults originate from basal detachment located at the sedimentary-crystalline interface and either cut up section to the surface or lose their displacement to splay or back thrusts. At the surface, the Shakardarra Fault, the Tola Bangi Khel Fault, the Chorlaki Fault, and the axial trend of fold change their strike from EW to NS showing that the thrust and axial trend of folds are rotated along the vertical axis by the influence of the Kalabagh strike-slip fault. Strike-slip motion dominates the style of deformation at the northern segment. The current deformation is concentrated on the splay faults in the northern segment of the Kalabagh Fault. We propose that Shakardarra is sequentially evolved in three episodes of deformation. In the first phase, the detachment folds developed on Eocene evaporites, which are truncated by thrust faults originated from the basal detachment in the second phase. In the third phase, early formed folds and faults are rotated along the vertical axis by the influence of Kalabagh strike-slip fault. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural evolution; detachment; thrusting; Kalabagh Fault; Shakardarra Fault; Pakistan structural evolution; detachment; thrusting; Kalabagh Fault; Shakardarra Fault; Pakistan
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Hussain, H.; Zhang, S. Structural Evolution of the Kohat Fold and Thrust Belt in the Shakardarra Area (South Eastern Kohat, Pakistan). Geosciences 2018, 8, 311.

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