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Clay Mineral Suites in Submarine Mud Volcanoes in the Kumano Forearc Basin, Nankai Trough: Constraints on the Origin of Mud Volcano Sediments

Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan
Research and Development Center for Submarine Resources, JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061, Japan
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0885, Japan
Research and Development Center for Ocean Drilling Science, JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2018, 8(6), 220;
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
Clay mineralogy is an important characteristic of mud volcano sediments. This study determined the clay mineral compositions of sediment from two submarine mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai Trough, by X-ray diffraction analysis. Similar compositions dominated by smectite in the two mud volcanoes indicate that the mud volcanoes in the basin are rooted in the same source sequence. These clay mineral compositions differed from those in Pleistocene basin sediment, suggesting that the mud volcano sediment originated beneath the Pleistocene sediment. The illite content in the illite–smectite mixed layer averaged 32% in the mud volcano sediment, which implies that the sediment experienced temperatures above 60 °C that promoted the smectite-to-illite transformation. However, porewater extracted from the mud volcano sediment had Cl concentrations roughly half that of seawater and proportional enrichment in 18O and depletion in D, indicating that dehydration reactions of clay minerals had previously occurred in a deeply buried sedimentary layer. The smectite and illite contents (<60%) in the clay-size fraction rule out in situ smectite dewatering as the cause of the dilution of Cl in porewater. Thus, fluids derived from clay dewatering must have originated from deeper than the source of the mud volcano sediment. View Full-Text
Keywords: mud volcano; clay mineral; porewater mud volcano; clay mineral; porewater
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Ijiri, A.; Iijima, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Ashi, J.; Inagaki, F. Clay Mineral Suites in Submarine Mud Volcanoes in the Kumano Forearc Basin, Nankai Trough: Constraints on the Origin of Mud Volcano Sediments. Geosciences 2018, 8, 220.

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