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Article

Thoracic Fraction (PM10) of Resuspended Urban Dust: Geochemistry, Particle Size Distribution and Lung Bioaccessibility

1
Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, HECS Branch, Health Canada, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
2
School of the Environment, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E8, Canada
3
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
4
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto (Scarborough), Toronto, ON M1C 1A4, Canada
5
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joanna Wragg, Mark Cave and Jesus Martinez-Frias
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020087
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Geology in the Urban Environment)
A fluidized bed aerosol generator was connected to a 13-stage cascade impactor (nanoMOUDI) for the size fractionation of urban dust (<10 µm), followed by the gravimetric analysis of loaded PTFE filter samples. This method was used to characterize the PM10 (thoracic) fraction of road dust sampled from expressways, arterial roads and local roads in Toronto, Canada. The fine particle fractions (<1.8 µm) of all the studied samples accounted for 51–72% of the resuspended PM10 (by weight). Elemental analysis using ICP-MS and ICP-OES revealed an overall trend of element enrichment in the <1.8 µm fraction compared to the coarse fraction (1.8–10 µm) of the road dust. By contrast, archived house dust samples displayed the reverse trend for most elements. The lung bioaccessibility of target elements (Al, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) was assessed for each road dust fraction using 0.1 M ammonium citrate (pH 4.4) to simulate intracellular fluid and Gamble solution (pH 7.2) to simulate interstitial lung fluid. The <1.8 µm fraction of local road dust displayed significantly higher bioaccessibility (p < 0.05) for Zn when using Gamble solution, and for seven out of the 14 target elements when using ammonium citrate. These results show the importance of characterizing the fine fraction of road dust. View Full-Text
Keywords: inhalation exposure; airborne particulate matter; PM2.5; PM mass distribution; metal solubility; street dust inhalation exposure; airborne particulate matter; PM2.5; PM mass distribution; metal solubility; street dust
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MDPI and ACS Style

Levesque, C.; Wiseman, C.L.S.; Beauchemin, S.; Rasmussen, P.E. Thoracic Fraction (PM10) of Resuspended Urban Dust: Geochemistry, Particle Size Distribution and Lung Bioaccessibility. Geosciences 2021, 11, 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020087

AMA Style

Levesque C, Wiseman CLS, Beauchemin S, Rasmussen PE. Thoracic Fraction (PM10) of Resuspended Urban Dust: Geochemistry, Particle Size Distribution and Lung Bioaccessibility. Geosciences. 2021; 11(2):87. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Levesque, Christine, Clare L.S. Wiseman, Suzanne Beauchemin, and Pat E. Rasmussen 2021. "Thoracic Fraction (PM10) of Resuspended Urban Dust: Geochemistry, Particle Size Distribution and Lung Bioaccessibility" Geosciences 11, no. 2: 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020087

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