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The Use of Submerged Speleothems for Sea Level Studies in the Mediterranean Sea: A New Perspective Using Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA)

1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, via di Vigna Murata, 00144 Roma, Italy
2
Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, via Weiss 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy
3
Institute of Polar Sciences (ISP), National Research Council (CNR), 40129 Bologna, Italy
4
NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, and Utrecht University, Landsdiep 4, 16797 SZ ‘t Horntje (Texel), The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jesus Martinez-Frias and Maša Surić
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020077
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 26 January 2021 / Accepted: 30 January 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Quaternary Environment in the Mediterranean)
The investigation of submerged speleothems for sea level studies has made significant contributions to the understanding of the global and regional sea level variations during the Middle and Late Quaternary. This has especially been the case for the Mediterranean Sea, where more than 300 submerged speleothems sampled in 32 caves have been analysed so far. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the results obtained from the study of submerged speleothems since 1978. The studied speleothems cover the last 1.4 Myr and are mainly focused on Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, and 7.5. The results reveal that submerged speleothems represent extraordinary archives providing accurate information on former sea level changes. New results from a stalagmite collected at Palinuro (Campania, Italy) and characterized by marine overgrowth are also reported. The measured elevations of speleothems are affected by the local response to glacial and hydro-isostatic adjustment (GIA), and thus might significantly deviate from the global eustatic signal. A comparison of the ages and altitude values of the Mediterranean speleothems and flowstone from the Bahamas with local GIA provides a new scenario for MIS 5 and 7 sea level reconstructions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean Sea; submerged speleothems; phreatic speleothems; sea level change; coastal caves; GIA Mediterranean Sea; submerged speleothems; phreatic speleothems; sea level change; coastal caves; GIA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Antonioli, F.; Furlani, S.; Montagna, P.; Stocchi, P. The Use of Submerged Speleothems for Sea Level Studies in the Mediterranean Sea: A New Perspective Using Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Geosciences 2021, 11, 77. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020077

AMA Style

Antonioli F, Furlani S, Montagna P, Stocchi P. The Use of Submerged Speleothems for Sea Level Studies in the Mediterranean Sea: A New Perspective Using Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Geosciences. 2021; 11(2):77. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020077

Chicago/Turabian Style

Antonioli, Fabrizio, Stefano Furlani, Paolo Montagna, and Paolo Stocchi. 2021. "The Use of Submerged Speleothems for Sea Level Studies in the Mediterranean Sea: A New Perspective Using Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA)" Geosciences 11, no. 2: 77. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020077

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