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Review

Hydroacoustic Mapping of Geogenic Hard Substrates: Challenges and Review of German Approaches

1
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, 18119 Rostock, Germany
2
Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Wadden Sea Research Station, 25992 List/Sylt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2020, 10(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030100
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 March 2020 / Published: 9 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Habitat Mapping: Selected Papers from "GeoHab 2021")
Subtidal hard substrate habitats are unique habitats in the marine environment. They provide crucial ecosystem services that are socially relevant, such as water clearance or as nursery space for fishes. With increasing marine usage and changing environmental conditions, pressure on reefs is increasing. All relevant directives and conventions around Europe include sublittoral hard substrate habitats in any manner. However, detailed specifications and specific advices about acquisition or delineation of these habitats are internationally rare although the demand for single object detection for e.g., ensuring safe navigation or to understand ecosystem functioning is increasing. To figure out the needs for area wide hard substrate mapping supported by automatic detection routines this paper reviews existing delineation rules and definitions relevant for hard substrate mapping. We focus on progress reached in German approval process resulting in first hydroacoustic mapping advices. In detail, we summarize present knowledge of hard substrate occurrence in the German North Sea and Baltic Sea, describes the development of hard substrate investigations and state of the art mapping techniques as well as automated analysis routines. View Full-Text
Keywords: geogenic hard substrate; stones; mapping; hydroacoustic; delineation geogenic hard substrate; stones; mapping; hydroacoustic; delineation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Papenmeier, S.; Darr, A.; Feldens, P.; Michaelis, R. Hydroacoustic Mapping of Geogenic Hard Substrates: Challenges and Review of German Approaches. Geosciences 2020, 10, 100. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030100

AMA Style

Papenmeier S, Darr A, Feldens P, Michaelis R. Hydroacoustic Mapping of Geogenic Hard Substrates: Challenges and Review of German Approaches. Geosciences. 2020; 10(3):100. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Papenmeier, Svenja, Alexander Darr, Peter Feldens, and Rune Michaelis. 2020. "Hydroacoustic Mapping of Geogenic Hard Substrates: Challenges and Review of German Approaches" Geosciences 10, no. 3: 100. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10030100

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