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Animals 2018, 8(11), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8110188

RNA Sequencing-Based Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Friesian Cattle Fed with Grape Pomace-Supplemented Diet

1
Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture, and Environment, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo, Italy
2
Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (Padua), Italy
3
Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Via S. Costanzo 4, 06126 Perugia, Italy
5
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale”, Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo, Italia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Simple Summary

Grape pomace (GPO) is an important source of polyphenols which are known to have antioxidant properties. In the past decade, GPO has received some attention as a bioactive dietary component in farm animals’ diet. In this study, we have analyzed the whole-transcriptome of Friesian calves fed with a GPO-supplemented diet using RNA-sequencing. We noted that the most affected pathway was the cholesterol lipid biosynthesis and this effect was consistent with a reduction in both serum cholesterol and lipid oxidation in the carcasses. This study provides evidence on the antioxidant property of GPO-supplemented diet, from a molecular biology standpoint.

Abstract

Grape pomace (GPO), the main by-product of the wine making process, is a rich source of polyphenols with potent antioxidant properties. Recently, GPO has emerged as a potential feed additive in livestock nutrition, with several reports describing its beneficial effects on animals’ overall health status or production traits. However, little is known about it from a molecular biology standpoint. In the present study, we report the first RNA sequencing-based whole-transcriptome profiling of Friesian calves fed with a GPO-supplemented diet. We identified 367 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) in the GPO-supplemented calves (n = 5), when compared with unsupplemented control group (n = 5). The pathway analysis showed that ‘cholesterol lipid biosynthesis’ was the most negatively-enriched (p < 0.001) pathway in the GPO-supplemented animals. In specific terms, five important genes coding for cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes, namely the Farnesyl-diphosphate Farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT-1), Squalene Epoxidase (SQLE), NAD(P)-dependent Steroid Dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL), Methylsterol Monooxygenase (MSMO)-1, and Sterol-C5-desaturase (SC5D), two major transcription factors (the Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Transcription Factor 1 and 2), as well as the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR), were all downregulated following GPO supplementation. Such an effect was mirrored by a reduction of blood cholesterol levels (p = 0.07) and a lowered (p < 0.001) Malondialdehyde (lipid oxidation marker) level in carcasses. We provide evidence on the effects of GPO-supplemented diets on the whole-transcriptome signature in veal calves, which mainly reflects an antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape pomace; transcriptomics; RNA-seq; cholesterol biosynthesis; blood; cattle grape pomace; transcriptomics; RNA-seq; cholesterol biosynthesis; blood; cattle
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Iannaccone, M.; Elgendy, R.; Giantin, M.; Martino, C.; Giansante, D.; Ianni, A.; Dacasto, M.; Martino, G. RNA Sequencing-Based Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Friesian Cattle Fed with Grape Pomace-Supplemented Diet. Animals 2018, 8, 188.

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