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Hopping Down the Main Street: Eastern Grey Kangaroos at Home in an Urban Matrix
Open AccessArticle

A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia
Endeavour Veterinary Ecology Pty Ltd, Toorbul, Queensland 4510, Australia
GreenLeaf Ecology, Mooloolah, Queensland 4553, Australia
Ecosure, West Burleigh, Queensland 4219, Australia
Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2014, 4(3), 562-582;
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Wildlife Management)
We designed a programme to control free-ranging kangaroos on a Queensland golf course, using contraceptive implants in females and vasectomisation or testicle removal in males. This reduced the numbers of pouch young to about one half of pre-intervention levels and controlled the population over a 2–4 year period. However, the necessary darting caused a mortality rate of 5–10% of captured animals, mainly due to complications before and after anaesthesia. It is concluded that population control is possible but careful management of kangaroos around the time of anaesthesia induction and recovery is important in such programmes to minimise losses.
Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control. View Full-Text
Keywords: behaviour; Deslorelin; orchidectomy; vasectomy; welfare behaviour; Deslorelin; orchidectomy; vasectomy; welfare
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tribe, A.; Hanger, J.; McDonald, I.J.; Loader, J.; Nottidge, B.J.; McKee, J.J.; Phillips, C.J.C. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Animals 2014, 4, 562-582.

AMA Style

Tribe A, Hanger J, McDonald IJ, Loader J, Nottidge BJ, McKee JJ, Phillips CJC. A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). Animals. 2014; 4(3):562-582.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tribe, Andrew; Hanger, Jon; McDonald, Ian J.; Loader, Jo; Nottidge, Ben J.; McKee, Jeff J.; Phillips, Clive J.C. 2014. "A Reproductive Management Program for an Urban Population of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)" Animals 4, no. 3: 562-582.

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