Poultry Production and Sustainability in Developing Countries under the COVID-19 Crisis: Lessons Learned
2. Impacts of COVID-19 on Food Security and Poultry Production
3. Plausible Explanations of COVID-19’s Damaging Effects on Animal Production
3.1. Concern about the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 from Animals and Social Rumors
3.2. Lockdown and Restrictions of Trades
- The animal feed supply was disrupted as due to lockdown, several countries such as Argentina and Brazil had to reduce their exports of raw materials of feed such as soybean and corn, which led to a shortage of dry feed in several developing countries [7,8,43]. In several African countries, the cost of chicken feed has increased .
- Poultry services were reduced, such as equipment, day-old chicks for stock replacements, feed, vaccines, drugs, diagnostics, and feed additives (vitamins and minerals) . Exporters in several countries also faced a considerable drop in demand for livestock-based foods in major importing markets.
- Market closures and transportation restrictions hampered access to markets and customers, affecting both animals and animal products, such as eggs and meat.
3.3. Small-Scale Poultry Farms
- Lockdown harmed small-scale production severely because small-scale producers in developing countries rely more on labor than machinery.
- Most small-scale-producing farms, including poultry farms, operate informally and, therefore, are excluded from the stimulus plans offered by governments to private businesses. Smallholder poultry producers mostly live in rural areas (sell eggs and live birds and purchase day-old chicks, feed, drugs, and disinfectants) . However, the animal husbandry services were severely interrupted due to lockdown and movement restrictions. Because most small-scale poultry farms are unregistered, they are not eligible for government stimulus programs .
- The implementation of sanitary measures in small-scale farms is difficult due to the lack of logistical and financial resources , making them more vulnerable to other infections.
4. Prospective to Improve Poultry Husbandry under COVID-19 Pandemic
5. Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic
- Application of biosecurity in animal farms and implementation of suitable hygienic measures
- Assessment of the economic impacts of COVID-19 on animal production sectors.
- Assessment of the social effects of COVID-19 on individuals and development of more effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 medications and vaccines and diagnostics.
- Educating the public about the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
- Cooperation between the different agencies and using veterinarians’ and physicians’ experiences in viral isolation programs and disinfection under the supervision of health authorities
- Regular risk assessment of healthcare and nonhealthcare workplaces to ensure safe work practices.
- Identifying potential reservoirs and analyzing risk factors and surveillance of live animal marketplaces and humans in touch with animals.
- Devising strategies and collecting funds for the implementation of preventative and control measures.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Name of Country||Adverse Effects on Poultry Production||References|
|Continents of the World||Production||Imports||Exports||Utilization|
|Central America and the Caribbean||5279||5399||1873||1804||31||42||7121||7162|
|Low-income food-deficit countries||7645||7351||1407||1329||58||50||8995||8630|
|Least developed countries||3572||3656||1170||1108||21||17||4722||4748|
|Facing Sustainability Problems||Reasons/Causes||Suggestions|
|Disruption of oultry supply chain||Persistence of the pandemic, rumors, panic, blockage of transportation restrictions, delivery delays, sales losses, operational disruptions, price fluctuation, lockdown, blockage of distribution channel, imbalance between supply and demand, and consumer’s dilemma due to COVID-19 transmission|
|Price fluctuations for poultry meat and eggs||Social rumors that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted by eggs and chickens|
|COVID-19 infects the employees of chicken processing plants||Lack of awareness and community guidelines, crowded conditions, and vaccination hesitation|
|Disruption of meat supply chain||Disruption of meat production and processing and temporary shutdown of hotels and restaurants|
|Low capital of the farmers, education and knowledge gap, lack of biosecurity and management training of the workers, and propaganda||Reducing poultry consumption, transportation, cost of poultry farming, consumer trust, and product quality|
|Impact on chicken and egg production, low intake of proteins, and loss of employment||Temporary or permanent closure of poultry farms, low demand, and cash flow problems|
|Effects on animal production, lower consumption of proteins, and high market price||Restrictions on global travel, flaws in the feed, veterinary, insurance, and other supply networks|
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Attia, Y.A.; Rahman, M.T.; Hossain, M.J.; Basiouni, S.; Khafaga, A.F.; Shehata, A.A.; Hafez, H.M. Poultry Production and Sustainability in Developing Countries under the COVID-19 Crisis: Lessons Learned. Animals 2022, 12, 644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050644
Attia YA, Rahman MT, Hossain MJ, Basiouni S, Khafaga AF, Shehata AA, Hafez HM. Poultry Production and Sustainability in Developing Countries under the COVID-19 Crisis: Lessons Learned. Animals. 2022; 12(5):644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050644Chicago/Turabian Style
Attia, Youssef A., Md. Tanvir Rahman, Md. Jannat Hossain, Shereen Basiouni, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Awad A. Shehata, and Hafez M. Hafez. 2022. "Poultry Production and Sustainability in Developing Countries under the COVID-19 Crisis: Lessons Learned" Animals 12, no. 5: 644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050644