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Article

Ecofriendly Usability of Mushroom Cultivation Substrate as a Ruminant Feed: Anaerobic Digestion Using Gas Production Techniques

1
Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Faculty, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
2
Laboratory of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Vizzarri
Animals 2022, 12(12), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121583
Received: 27 April 2022 / Revised: 16 June 2022 / Accepted: 17 June 2022 / Published: 19 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Potential Feedstuffs and Additives in Livestock)
Ruminants might use process and agricultural by-products to meet their maintenance, growth, and production needs. Generally, feed is the major cost for an animal farm, yet utilization of agro-industrial waste (such as mushroom cultivation substrate) not only reduces these expenses, but could also help with the issue of environmental pollution. Accordingly, mushroom cultivation waste might be used for animal feeding after harvesting, because of its good-quality substrate, which is beneficial for ruminants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the mushroom-cultivated substrate microscopic surface and its fermentability. Mushroom cultivation led to lower ether extract, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber level of substrate. Our results show that biological treatment could reduce fiber components while increasing feed digestibility, providing new insight into the use of biological pretreatment to produce ruminant feed. According to the results, biological processing of mushroom cultivation substrate might increase in vitro fermentation. In conclusion, mushroom-cultivated substrate might be used as feed in ruminant diets.
The current study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of mushroom-uncultivated and -cultivated substrates, and their in vitro gas and methane production. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, and analyzed with GLM using SAS 9.4. Analysis of the structural morphology of mushroom-cultivated substrate was performed using a scanning electron microscope. Mushroom cultivation led to lower ether extract, acid detergent fiber, and crude fiber level of substrate (p < 0.05). Mushroom-cultivated substrate showed higher in vitro cumulative gas production (p < 0.05). Moreover, mushroom cultivation led to a higher sample surface, and improved the microorganisms’ access to feed materials, thus stimulating rumen fermentation and increasing methane production (p < 0.05). The organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, and net energy lactation values were higher for mushroom-cultivated substrate than uncultivated substrate. The results demonstrate that mushroom-cultivation not only increases the contact surface of cellulose, leading to higher ruminal microorganisms’ access to feedstuff, but could also had higher nutritive value; this material might be used in ruminant ration formulation, to reduce environmental pollution and feed costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: mushroom-cultivated substrate; agro-industrial by-products; in vitro digestibility; methane emission mushroom-cultivated substrate; agro-industrial by-products; in vitro digestibility; methane emission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palangi, V.; Kaya, A.; Kaya, A.; Giannenas, I. Ecofriendly Usability of Mushroom Cultivation Substrate as a Ruminant Feed: Anaerobic Digestion Using Gas Production Techniques. Animals 2022, 12, 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121583

AMA Style

Palangi V, Kaya A, Kaya A, Giannenas I. Ecofriendly Usability of Mushroom Cultivation Substrate as a Ruminant Feed: Anaerobic Digestion Using Gas Production Techniques. Animals. 2022; 12(12):1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121583

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palangi, Valiollah, Adem Kaya, Ali Kaya, and Ilias Giannenas. 2022. "Ecofriendly Usability of Mushroom Cultivation Substrate as a Ruminant Feed: Anaerobic Digestion Using Gas Production Techniques" Animals 12, no. 12: 1583. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12121583

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