Next Article in Journal
Effects of Heat Stress on Gut-Microbial Metabolites, Gastrointestinal Peptides, Glycolipid Metabolism, and Performance of Broilers
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Dietary Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Serum Parameters, and Intestinal Development of Geese
Previous Article in Journal
Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis Commensal Isolates from Laying Hen Farms in Spain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Biscuit Flour and Fermented Defatted “Alperujo” Co-Administration on Intestinal Mucosa Morphology and Productive Performance in Laying Hens
Article

Impact of Xylanase and Glucanase on Oligosaccharide Formation, Carbohydrate Fermentation Patterns, and Nutrient Utilization in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers

1
Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Wageningen University & Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Biometris, Applied Statistics, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Huvepharma NV, Uitbreidingstraat 80, 2600 Berchem, Belgium
4
Laboratory for Animal Nutrition and Animal Product Quality (LANUPRO), Department of Animal Sciences and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paweł Konieczka and Dorota Bederska-Łojewska
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051285
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Feeding and Gut Health)
Fiber-degrading enzymes are commonly used as feed additives in poultry nutrition to offset the anti-nutritive impact of cereal fibers. These enzymes have been associated with improved nutrient digestion and hindgut fermentation of fibers, and ultimately, improved animal growth. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of fiber-degrading enzymes to break fibers down to smaller, more easily fermentable structures and evaluate its implications on feed digestion and fermentation in broilers. It was shown that fiber-degrading enzymes released oligosaccharides in the upper gastrointestinal tract in wheat-fed broilers. This coincided with higher short-chain fatty acid production in the ceca and improved nutrient digestion in the small intestine. Such processes were not observed in maize-fed broilers. The higher impact of enzymes in the wheat-based diet is believed to be related to the more complex structure of maize fibers as well as to the higher nutritional value of maize compared to wheat. This study further establishes the beneficial influence of fiber-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient and fiber use.
This study aimed at determining how the degradation of cereal non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) by dietary enzymes during feed digestion can influence nutrient digestibility and NSP fermentability in broilers. Ninety-six one-day-old male broilers were assigned to 4 different treatments: control and enzyme-supplemented wheat-based (WC, WE) or maize-based (MC, ME) treatments. Enzyme supplementation with endo-xylanase and endo-glucanase occurred from day 20 onwards. On day 28, digesta samples were collected. Nutrient digestibility, NSP recovery, oligosaccharide profile, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content were determined. Enzyme supplementation in WE resulted in a higher starch (3%; p = 0.004) and protein (5%; p = 0.002) digestion in the ileum compared to WC. Xylanase activity in WE led to in situ formations of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides consisting of 5 to 26 pentose units in the ileum. This coincided with decreased arabinose (p = 0.059) and xylose (p = 0.036) amounts in the ceca and higher acetate (p = 0.014) and butyrate (p = 0.044) formation in WE compared to WC. Conversely, complete total tract recovery of arabinoxylan in MC and ME suggested poor maize NSP fermentability. Overall, enzyme action improved nutrient digestibility and arabinoxylan fermentability in the wheat-based diet. The lower response of the maize-based diet to enzyme treatment may be related to the recalcitrance of maize arabinoxylan as well as to the high nutritive value of maize. View Full-Text
Keywords: feed enzymes; cereal NSP; xylanase; broilers; oligosaccharide MALDI-TOF-MS profile; digestion; prebiotics; arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides feed enzymes; cereal NSP; xylanase; broilers; oligosaccharide MALDI-TOF-MS profile; digestion; prebiotics; arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kouzounis, D.; Hageman, J.A.; Soares, N.; Michiels, J.; Schols, H.A. Impact of Xylanase and Glucanase on Oligosaccharide Formation, Carbohydrate Fermentation Patterns, and Nutrient Utilization in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers. Animals 2021, 11, 1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051285

AMA Style

Kouzounis D, Hageman JA, Soares N, Michiels J, Schols HA. Impact of Xylanase and Glucanase on Oligosaccharide Formation, Carbohydrate Fermentation Patterns, and Nutrient Utilization in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers. Animals. 2021; 11(5):1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051285

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kouzounis, Dimitrios, Jos A. Hageman, Natalia Soares, Joris Michiels, and Henk A. Schols 2021. "Impact of Xylanase and Glucanase on Oligosaccharide Formation, Carbohydrate Fermentation Patterns, and Nutrient Utilization in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Broilers" Animals 11, no. 5: 1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051285

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop