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Honey Bee Proteolytic System and Behavior Parameters under the Influence of an Electric Field at 50 Hz and Variable Intensities for a Long Exposure Time

1
Department of Environment, Hygiene and Animal Welfare, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 25 C.K. Norwida St., 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Institute of Biological Basis of Animal Production, Faculty of Biology, Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
3
Telecommunications and Teleinformatics Department, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego St., 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luciano Bani
Animals 2021, 11(3), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030863
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology and Conservation)
The amount of electromagnetic field (EMF) in the environment emitted by electrical and electronic devices, mobile phone masts, or power lines is constantly increasing. Honey bee can be exposed to the EMF in the environment, and the influence of this factor on bees is still under consideration. Studying the impact of EMF on honey bees can give valuable information about whether it poses a threat to them. The honey bee is an important pollinator, playing a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and food production. Our research showed that a 50 Hz electric field at various intensities reduced the number of occurrences of walking, contacts between individuals, and self-grooming, and increased the activity of proteases, which are involved in the immune system response.
The effect of an artificial electromagnetic field on organisms is a subject of extensive public debate and growing numbers of studies. Our study aimed to show the effect of an electromagnetic field at 50 Hz and variable intensities on honey bee proteolytic systems and behavior parameters after 12 h of exposure. Newly emerged worker bees were put into cages and exposed to a 50 Hz E-field with an intensity of 5.0 kV/m, 11.5 kV/m, 23.0 kV/m, or 34.5 kV/m. After 12 h of exposure, hemolymph samples were taken for protease analysis, and the bees were recorded for behavioral analysis. Six behaviors were chosen for observation: walking, flying, self-grooming, contact between individuals, stillness, and wing movement. Bees in the control group demonstrated the highest number of all behavior occurrences, except flying, and had the lowest protease activity. Bees in the experimental groups showed a lower number of occurrences of walking, self-grooming, and contacts between individuals than the control bees and had significantly higher protease activity than the control bees (except that of alkaline proteases in the 23.0 kV/m group). View Full-Text
Keywords: proteases; behavior; proteolytic enzymes; electromagnetic field; honey bee immunity proteases; behavior; proteolytic enzymes; electromagnetic field; honey bee immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Migdał, P.; Murawska, A.; Strachecka, A.; Bieńkowski, P.; Roman, A. Honey Bee Proteolytic System and Behavior Parameters under the Influence of an Electric Field at 50 Hz and Variable Intensities for a Long Exposure Time. Animals 2021, 11, 863. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030863

AMA Style

Migdał P, Murawska A, Strachecka A, Bieńkowski P, Roman A. Honey Bee Proteolytic System and Behavior Parameters under the Influence of an Electric Field at 50 Hz and Variable Intensities for a Long Exposure Time. Animals. 2021; 11(3):863. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030863

Chicago/Turabian Style

Migdał, Paweł, Agnieszka Murawska, Aneta Strachecka, Paweł Bieńkowski, and Adam Roman. 2021. "Honey Bee Proteolytic System and Behavior Parameters under the Influence of an Electric Field at 50 Hz and Variable Intensities for a Long Exposure Time" Animals 11, no. 3: 863. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030863

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