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Article

Clinical and Histopathological Features of Renal Maldevelopment in Boxer Dogs: A Retrospective Case Series (1999–2018)

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
2
Veterinary diagnostic Lab ACV Triggiano, 70019 Triggiano, Italy
3
Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This study was partially presented as oral communication at the 11th ECVIM-CA/ESVIM Congress, Dublin (Ireland) as “Congenital nephrotic syndrome with renal glomerular immaturity in 7 Boxer dogs”. Zatelli, A., Domenech, O., Bussadori, C., Lubas, G., Del Piero, F.
Academic Editors: Mandy Paterson and Paola Scarpa
Animals 2021, 11(3), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030810
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 27 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 13 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Canine and Feline Nephropathies)
This study describes clinical findings in Boxer dogs with renal maldevelopment and proposes a possible mode of inheritance. Medical records of 9 female Boxer dogs, older than 5 months and with a clinical diagnosis of proteinuric chronic kidney disease prior to one year of age, showed the presence of polyuria and polydipsia, decreased appetite, weight loss, lethargy and weakness in all affected dogs. Common laboratory findings were proteinuria and diluted urine, non-regenerative anemia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Histopathology of the kidneys identified the presence of immature glomeruli in all dogs. In 7 out of 9 related dogs, the pedigree analysis showed that a simple autosomal recessive trait may be a possible mode of inheritance. Renal glomerular immaturity should be suspected in Boxer dogs with a history of polyuria, polydipsia, decreased appetite, weight loss, lethargy, weakness and proteinuria. A prompt diagnosis of renal maldevelopment, potentially hereditary, may help to evaluate if relatives of the affected dogs might be at risk, thus assisting clinicians in reaching an early diagnosis. A routine clinical renal screening evaluation in this breed, especially when this disease is suspected, should be strongly recommended.
Renal maldevelopment (RM) has been proposed to replace the old and sometimes misused term “renal dysplasia” in dogs. Although renal dysplasia has been described in Boxers, hereditary transmission has only been hypothesized. This study reports clinical and renal histological findings in Boxer dogs with RM, proposing a possible mode of inheritance. Medical records of 9 female Boxer dogs, older than 5 months and with a clinical diagnosis of chronic kidney disease prior to one year of age, were retrospectively reviewed. Polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), decreased appetite, weight loss, lethargy and weakness were described in all affected dogs. Common laboratory findings were proteinuria, diluted urine, non-regenerative anemia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Histopathology of the kidneys revealed the presence of immature glomeruli in all dogs, which is consistent with RM. In 7 related dogs, the pedigree analysis showed that a simple autosomal recessive trait may be a possible mode of inheritance. Renal maldevelopment should be suspected in young Boxer dogs with a history of PU/PD, decreased appetite, weight loss, lethargy, weakness and proteinuria. Due to its possible inheritance, an early diagnosis of RM may allow clinicians to promptly identify other potentially affected dogs among the relatives of the diagnosed case. View Full-Text
Keywords: kidney; renal maldevelopment; immature glomeruli; proteinuria; inheritance; canine; Boxer kidney; renal maldevelopment; immature glomeruli; proteinuria; inheritance; canine; Boxer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cavalera, M.A.; Gernone, F.; Uva, A.; D’Ippolito, P.; Roura, X.; Zatelli, A. Clinical and Histopathological Features of Renal Maldevelopment in Boxer Dogs: A Retrospective Case Series (1999–2018). Animals 2021, 11, 810. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030810

AMA Style

Cavalera MA, Gernone F, Uva A, D’Ippolito P, Roura X, Zatelli A. Clinical and Histopathological Features of Renal Maldevelopment in Boxer Dogs: A Retrospective Case Series (1999–2018). Animals. 2021; 11(3):810. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030810

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cavalera, Maria A., Floriana Gernone, Annamaria Uva, Paola D’Ippolito, Xavier Roura, and Andrea Zatelli. 2021. "Clinical and Histopathological Features of Renal Maldevelopment in Boxer Dogs: A Retrospective Case Series (1999–2018)" Animals 11, no. 3: 810. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030810

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