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Optimal Standardized Ileal Digestible Total Sulfur Amino Acids to Lysine REQUIREMENTS Are Increased in Nursery Pigs Raised under Antibiotic-Free Feeding Regime

1
Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO 63304, USA
2
Genus PIC North America, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Corino
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113143
Received: 3 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 29 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Total sulfur amino acids play a critical role in numerous biological functions, including antioxidative status and immunity, as well as protein synthesis. Weaning pigs commonly face multiple stressors which can impair their gut integrity and growth performance. Antibiotic removal from the diets in weaning pigs can stimulate immune response and divert nutrients from growth to optimize immune function. The objective of the current two studies was to determine the optimal ratio of the standardized ileal digestible (SID) total sulfur amino acid to lysine (TSAA:Lys) in nursery pigs under an antibiotics-free feeding regime. The results demonstrated that the optimal SID TSAA:Lys for nursery pigs raised without antibiotics during the first 21 d post-weaning was 62 to 72% in terms of growth performance, whereas the optimal SID TSAA:Lys was approximately 58% in terms of growth performance in the late nursery phase.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of increasing the standardized ileal digestible (SID) total sulfur amino acid to lysine (TSAA:Lys) on the growth performance of nursery pigs raised with or without antibiotics (AGP) and to determine the optimal SID TSAA:Lys in nursery pigs raised without AGP. In Exp. 1, 924 nursery pigs (7.9 ± 1.3 kg), blocked by initial BW and sex, were randomly allotted to one of six treatments, with seven pens per treatment and twenty-two pigs per pen. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design, with two AGP levels (0 or 50 mg/kg Carbodox) and three levels of SID TSAA:Lys (51.0, 58.5 or 66.0%). In Exp. 2, 990 weaned piglets (5.1 ± 0.9 kg), blocked by initial BW and sex, were randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments (SID TSAA:Lys at 51, 58, 65, 72 or 79%) in the absence of AGP, with nine pens per treatment and twenty-two pigs per pen. Competing heteroskedastic models including broken-line linear (BLL), broken-line quadratic (BLQ), and quadratic polynomial (QP) were fitted for the growth performance data to estimate the optimal TSAA:Lys. In Exp. 1, AGP supplementation increased (p < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during the 21 d period. Increasing SID TSAA:Lys in the diets with AGP did not affect growth performance; however, increasing SID TSAA:Lys in the diets without AGP resulted in a linear increase (p < 0.05) in ADG and G:F. In Exp. 2, the best-fitting models for ADG and G:F from d 0 to 21 post-weaning were BLL, which yielded the optimal SID TSAA:Lys of 62% and 72%, respectively. The best-fitting models for ADG and G:F from d 21 to 42 post-weaning were BLL, which yielded the optimal SID TSAA:Lys of 59% and 58%, respectively. In conclusion, SID TSAA to Lys requirements under an antibiotic-free feeding regime during the first 21 d post-weaning were 62% and 72% in terms of ADG and G:F, respectively, whereas an SID TSAA:Lys of approximately 58% was required to maximize ADG and G:F for the late nursery phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics-free; 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid; lysine; growth performance; pigs; total sulfur amino acid antibiotics-free; 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid; lysine; growth performance; pigs; total sulfur amino acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, P.; Almeida, F.; Orlando, U.; Gonçalves, M.; Hancock, D.; Vazquez-Añón, M. Optimal Standardized Ileal Digestible Total Sulfur Amino Acids to Lysine REQUIREMENTS Are Increased in Nursery Pigs Raised under Antibiotic-Free Feeding Regime. Animals 2021, 11, 3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113143

AMA Style

Ren P, Almeida F, Orlando U, Gonçalves M, Hancock D, Vazquez-Añón M. Optimal Standardized Ileal Digestible Total Sulfur Amino Acids to Lysine REQUIREMENTS Are Increased in Nursery Pigs Raised under Antibiotic-Free Feeding Regime. Animals. 2021; 11(11):3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Ping, Ferdinando Almeida, Uislei Orlando, Marcio Gonçalves, Deana Hancock, and Mercedes Vazquez-Añón. 2021. "Optimal Standardized Ileal Digestible Total Sulfur Amino Acids to Lysine REQUIREMENTS Are Increased in Nursery Pigs Raised under Antibiotic-Free Feeding Regime" Animals 11, no. 11: 3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113143

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