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Optimization of Sperm Cryopreservation Protocol for Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)

SaBio IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), ETSIAM, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Department of Animal Reproduction, INIA, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(4), 691;
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biotechnology in Wildlife)
The process of semen cryopreservation can have multiple advantages in an ex situ conservation program. However, there is a necessity to adapt the protocol to the specificity of each species. With that in mind, we aimed to optimize the sperm freezing/thawing process and study the effect of different cryoprotectants in the peregrine falcon.
Sperm cryopreservation is a complex process that needs to be adapted to wild and domestic avian species to ensure proper efficiency. Because of its accessibility, the peregrine falcon may be used as a good model for studying other raptor species. To find the most optimal cryopreservation protocol for peregrine falcon ejaculates, sperm parameters such as motility, viability, DNA fragmentation, acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial activity were analyzed under different conditions by varying the freezing method (slow freezing in straws vs. ultrarapid freezing in pellets), thawing conditions (37 °C for 30 s vs. 5 °C for 1 min), type of cryoprotectant (DMA vs. DMSO), and concentration of DMSO (4% vs. 8%). Results show that slow cryopreservation in straws yielded greater percentages (p < 0.05) of motile spermatozoa (22.5% ± 4.4% vs. 0.0% ± 4.1%), viable spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (84.6% ± 4.3% vs. 77.4% ± 4.3%), and spermatozoa with active mitochondria (41.0% ± 6.7% vs.12.8% ± 6.7%), compared with those obtained by the ultrarapid freezing in pellets. However, no differences were found between different thawing conditions. Moreover, all sperm motility parameters were greater (p < 0.05) when DMSO was used during freezing compared with DMA, although the use of 3% and 8% DMSO produced similar results. In conclusion, these results represent important progress in the study of falcon semen cryopreservation protocol, highlighting the crucial steps of the process and the most suitable conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryopreservation; peregrine falcon; spermatozoa; freezing/thawing; cryoprotectant cryopreservation; peregrine falcon; spermatozoa; freezing/thawing; cryoprotectant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cardoso, B.; Sánchez-Ajofrín, I.; Castaño, C.; García-Álvarez, O.; Esteso, M.C.; Maroto-Morales, A.; Iniesta-Cuerda, M.; Garde, J.J.; Santiago-Moreno, J.; Soler, A.J. Optimization of Sperm Cryopreservation Protocol for Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Animals 2020, 10, 691.

AMA Style

Cardoso B, Sánchez-Ajofrín I, Castaño C, García-Álvarez O, Esteso MC, Maroto-Morales A, Iniesta-Cuerda M, Garde JJ, Santiago-Moreno J, Soler AJ. Optimization of Sperm Cryopreservation Protocol for Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Animals. 2020; 10(4):691.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cardoso, Beatriz, Irene Sánchez-Ajofrín, Cristina Castaño, Olga García-Álvarez, Milagros C. Esteso, Alejandro Maroto-Morales, María Iniesta-Cuerda, José J. Garde, Julián Santiago-Moreno, and Ana J. Soler. 2020. "Optimization of Sperm Cryopreservation Protocol for Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)" Animals 10, no. 4: 691.

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