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Effects of In Ovo Supplementation with Nanonutrition (L-Arginine Conjugated with Ag NPs) on Muscle Growth, Immune Response and Heat Shock Proteins at Different Chicken Embryonic Development Stages

1
Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
2
College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040564
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
In this study, we have analyzed the effects of in ovo supplementation of inorganic and organic synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) conjugated with L-arginine (L-Arg) that were injected in chicken embryo at three different embryonic development stages (8th d, 14th d and 18th d). We investigated the effects of both conjugated Ag NPs on the survival, hatchability and body weight on hatching day (1 d old chicks). The expression of muscle growth related proteins, mainly myoblast determination protein (myoD), myogenin and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) were analyzed in pectoral muscles. The serum level of immunoglobulin M (IgM), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were also examined. Our study shows that 14th day of injection of both types of conjugated Ag NPs promoted survival rate and hatching rate at 8 d and 18 d from injection. The immunoglobulin (IgM) levels in serum and the expression of muscle growth related proteins (myoD and myogenin) were dramatically improved; in addition, HSP-60 and HSP-70 expression were declined at 14th d of injection. The serum levels of SGOT and SGPT were decreased at 14d injection when compared to 8 d and 18 d injection. Hence, the 14th day would be suitable day for injection of L-Arg with Ag NPs to promote the survival rate, hatching rate, immune system and muscle growth. Our results illustrated that plant mediated synthesis of Ag NPs at 1000 μg and chemically synthesized Ag NPs at 100 μg concentration would be a better choice to make nanonutrition with L-Arg (100 μg) to carry the nutrients without any toxicity at 14 d injection.
The aim of the study was to analyze the in ovo injection of inorganic and organic synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Brassica oleracea L. var. capitate F. rubra (BOL) conjugation with L-Arginine (L-Arg) on the immune, muscle growth, survivability and hatchability of broiler chickens. The conjugation of L-Arg (100 μg) with 1000 µg of Ag NPs synthesized by (BOL)-extract and L-Arg (100 μg) conjugated with 100 µg of Ag NPs inorganic synthesized were injected into fertile eggs at 8 d, 14 d and 18 d of incubation. Survival and hatching rate were significantly improved in the dose of L-Arg (100 μg) with 1000 µg (BOL-Ag NPs) and L-Arg (100 μg) with 100 µg (C-Ag NPs) on 14 d injection whereas it was decreased on 8 d or 18 d injection. Moreover, the protein expression of muscle development markers such as myogenin and myoD were significantly uprelated in 14 d of incubation whereas the heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP-60 and HSP-70, were significantly upregulated in 18 d incubation. In addition, the liver function marker of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly decreased and the immunoglobulin (IgM) levels were increased in a 14 d incubation period in serum at the same concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; silver; L-arginine; conjugation; muscle growth nanoparticles; silver; L-arginine; conjugation; muscle growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Subramaniyan, S.A.; Kang, D.; Siddiqui, S.H.; Park, J.; Tian, W.; Park, B.; Shim, K. Effects of In Ovo Supplementation with Nanonutrition (L-Arginine Conjugated with Ag NPs) on Muscle Growth, Immune Response and Heat Shock Proteins at Different Chicken Embryonic Development Stages. Animals 2020, 10, 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040564

AMA Style

Subramaniyan SA, Kang D, Siddiqui SH, Park J, Tian W, Park B, Shim K. Effects of In Ovo Supplementation with Nanonutrition (L-Arginine Conjugated with Ag NPs) on Muscle Growth, Immune Response and Heat Shock Proteins at Different Chicken Embryonic Development Stages. Animals. 2020; 10(4):564. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Subramaniyan, Sivakumar Allur, Darae Kang, Sharif Hasan Siddiqui, Jinryong Park, Weishun Tian, Byungyong Park, and Kwanseob Shim. 2020. "Effects of In Ovo Supplementation with Nanonutrition (L-Arginine Conjugated with Ag NPs) on Muscle Growth, Immune Response and Heat Shock Proteins at Different Chicken Embryonic Development Stages" Animals 10, no. 4: 564. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040564

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