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Brief Report

Biopsy and Tracheobronchial Aspirates as Additional Tools for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Living European Bison (Bison bonasus)

1
Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economic, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Morphological Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
4
National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Płocka 26, 01-138 Warsaw, Poland
5
Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
6
Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
7
Institute of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45 E, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
8
Białowieża National Park, Park Pałacowy 11, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland
9
Department of Animal Genetics and Conservation, Institute of Animal Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland
10
Department of Science and Innovation-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box 241, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
11
National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1920 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010, USA
12
Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., 3661 Horseblock Road, Medford, NY 11763, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112017
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
In this study, additional methods of collecting material for bovine tuberculosis diagnosis in living European bison were introduced. We showed a potential usage of tracheobronchial aspirates and ultrasound-guided biopsies from lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes in living animals for diagnostics. We confirmed that the isolation of Mycobacterium caprae in living European bison is possible, as is the respiratory shedding of viable M. caprae in this host. This study is important as tuberculosis is a real threat for European bison which is an endangered species and the improvement of diagnostics can help with better health monitoring and further restitution.
The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in living wildlife remains a complex problem, and one of particular importance in endangered species like European bison (Bison bonasus). To identify infection and avoid the unnecessary culling of such valuable individuals, current best practice requires the collection and culture of material from living animals, as mycobacteria isolation remains the gold standard in BTB diagnosis. However, such isolation is challenging due to the need for the immobilization and collection of appropriate clinical material, and because of the sporadic shedding of mycobacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of sampling for the detection of BTB in a group of seven living European bison suspected of being infected with Mycobacterium caprae. The specimens were collected both as swabs from the nasal and pharyngeal cavities, tracheobronchial aspirates (TBA), ultrasound-guided biopsies from lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and post mortem, from mandibular, retropharyngeal and mediastinal lymph nodes. Clinical samples were tested for mycobacterial species via mycobacteriological culture and PCR. M. caprae was isolated from collected material in two out of four living infected individuals (TBA, biopsy) and mycobacterial DNA was detected in three out of four (TBA, pharyngeal swab) bison. This is the first report of isolation of M. caprae in living European bison. Our findings demonstrate the value of diagnostic tests based on both molecular testing and culture in European bison and confirm the respiratory shedding of viable M. caprae in this host species. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopsy; European bison; Mycobacterium caprae; tracheobronchial aspirates; tuberculosis biopsy; European bison; Mycobacterium caprae; tracheobronchial aspirates; tuberculosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Didkowska, A.; Orłowska, B.; Witkowski, L.; Olbrych, K.; Brzezińska, S.; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, E.; Krajewska-Wędzina, M.; Bereznowski, A.; Bielecki, W.; Krzysiak, M.; Rakowska, A.; Olech, W.; Miller, M.A.; Waters, W.R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Anusz, K. Biopsy and Tracheobronchial Aspirates as Additional Tools for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Living European Bison (Bison bonasus). Animals 2020, 10, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112017

AMA Style

Didkowska A, Orłowska B, Witkowski L, Olbrych K, Brzezińska S, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Krajewska-Wędzina M, Bereznowski A, Bielecki W, Krzysiak M, Rakowska A, Olech W, Miller MA, Waters WR, Lyashchenko KP, Anusz K. Biopsy and Tracheobronchial Aspirates as Additional Tools for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Living European Bison (Bison bonasus). Animals. 2020; 10(11):2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Didkowska, Anna, Blanka Orłowska, Lucjan Witkowski, Katarzyna Olbrych, Sylwia Brzezińska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Monika Krajewska-Wędzina, Andrzej Bereznowski, Wojciech Bielecki, Michał Krzysiak, Alicja Rakowska, Wanda Olech, Michele A. Miller, Wade R. Waters, Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, and Krzysztof Anusz. 2020. "Biopsy and Tracheobronchial Aspirates as Additional Tools for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis in Living European Bison (Bison bonasus)" Animals 10, no. 11: 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112017

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