Next Article in Journal
Provisional Use of CLSI-Approved Quality Control Strains for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycoplasma (‘Mesomycoplasma’) hyorhinis
Previous Article in Journal
European Non-Polio Enterovirus Network: Introduction of Hospital-Based Surveillance Network to Understand the True Disease Burden of Non-Polio Enterovirus and Parechovirus Infections in Europe
Article

Early Immune Initiation by Porcine Cells following Toxoplasma gondii Infection versus TLR Ligation

Institute of Immunology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sonia Almeria
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091828
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 19 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Farm Animals)
Containment of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection is dependent on an efficient interferon gamma response. However, the earliest steps of immune response initiation immediately following exposure to the parasite have not been previously characterized in pigs. Murine and human myeloid cells produce large quantities of interleukin (IL)-12 during early T. gondii infection. We therefore examined IL-12 expression by porcine peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cell (DC) subsets following toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation and controlled T. gondii tachyzoite infection. We detected IL-12p40 expression by porcine plasmacytoid DC, but not conventional or monocyte-derived DC following TLR ligation. Unexpectedly, we also observed considerable IL-12p40 production by porcine CD3– NKp46+ cells—a classical natural killer cell phenotype—following TLR ligation. However, in response to T. gondii exposure, no IL-12 production was observed by either DC or CD3– NKp46+ cells. Despite this, IL-18 production by DC-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells was detected following live T. gondii tachyzoite exposure. Only combined stimulation of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells with recombinant IL-12p70 and IL-18 induced innate interferon gamma production by natural killer cells, while T cells and myeloid cells did not respond. Therefore, porcine CD3– NKp46+ cells serve as important IL-12 producers following TLR ligation, while IL-18 likely plays a prominent role in early immune response initiation in the pig following T. gondii infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: dendritic cells; IFNγ; IL-12; IL-18; monocytes; NK cells; NKp46; pigs; TLR; Toxoplasma gondii dendritic cells; IFNγ; IL-12; IL-18; monocytes; NK cells; NKp46; pigs; TLR; Toxoplasma gondii
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hamid, B.; Schlosser-Brandenburg, J.; Bechtold, L.; Ebner, F.; Rausch, S.; Hartmann, S. Early Immune Initiation by Porcine Cells following Toxoplasma gondii Infection versus TLR Ligation. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091828

AMA Style

Hamid B, Schlosser-Brandenburg J, Bechtold L, Ebner F, Rausch S, Hartmann S. Early Immune Initiation by Porcine Cells following Toxoplasma gondii Infection versus TLR Ligation. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(9):1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091828

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamid, Benjamin, Josephine Schlosser-Brandenburg, Lalita Bechtold, Friederike Ebner, Sebastian Rausch, and Susanne Hartmann. 2021. "Early Immune Initiation by Porcine Cells following Toxoplasma gondii Infection versus TLR Ligation" Microorganisms 9, no. 9: 1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091828

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop