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Chironomus ramosus Larval Microbiome Composition Provides Evidence for the Presence of Detoxifying Enzymes

1
Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
2
Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, India
3
Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
4
Department of Biology and Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Oranim, Tivon 3600600, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(8), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081571
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 11 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
Chironomids (Diptera; Chironomidae) are aquatic insects that are abundant in freshwater. We aimed to study the endogenous microbiota composition of Chironomus ramosus larvae that were sampled from the Mutha River and a laboratory culture in India. Furthermore, we performed a metagenomic analysis of the larval microbiome, sampled from the Mutha River. Significant differences were found between the bacterial community composition of C. ramosus larvae that were sampled from the Mutha River and the laboratory culture. A total of 54.7% of the amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) that were identified in the larvae from the Mutha River were unique, compared to only 12.9% of unique ASVs that were identified from the laboratory-reared larvae. The four most abundant phyla across all samples were: Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, while the nine most abundant genera were: Aeromonas, Alkanindiges, Breznakia, Cetobacterium, Chryseobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Dysgonomonas, Thiothrix, and Vibrio. Moreover, in the metagenomic analysis, we detected bacterial genes and bacterial pathways that demonstrated the ability to degrade different toxic compounds, detoxify metal, and confer resistance to antibiotics and UV radiation, amongst other functions. The results illuminate the fact that there are detoxifying enzymes in the C. ramosus larval microbiome that possibly play a role in protecting the insect in polluted environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: chironomid; microbiome; host–bacteria interaction; toxicant; degradation resistance chironomid; microbiome; host–bacteria interaction; toxicant; degradation resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sela, R.; Laviad-Shitrit, S.; Thorat, L.; Nath, B.B.; Halpern, M. Chironomus ramosus Larval Microbiome Composition Provides Evidence for the Presence of Detoxifying Enzymes. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1571. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081571

AMA Style

Sela R, Laviad-Shitrit S, Thorat L, Nath BB, Halpern M. Chironomus ramosus Larval Microbiome Composition Provides Evidence for the Presence of Detoxifying Enzymes. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(8):1571. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sela, Rotem, Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Leena Thorat, Bimalendu B. Nath, and Malka Halpern. 2021. "Chironomus ramosus Larval Microbiome Composition Provides Evidence for the Presence of Detoxifying Enzymes" Microorganisms 9, no. 8: 1571. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081571

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