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Feedborne Salmonella enterica Serovar Jerusalem Outbreak in Different Organic Poultry Flocks in Switzerland and Italy Linked to Soya Expeller

1
National Reference Center for Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Listeria (NENT), Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Center for Zoonoses, Animal Bacterial Diseases and Antimicrobial Resistance (ZOBA), Institute for Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Berne, 3012 Berne, Switzerland
4
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria e Marche, Sezione di Tolentino, 62029 Tolentino, Italy
5
National Reference Center for Poultry and Rabbit Diseases (NRGK), Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María-Jesús Grilló and Lourdes Migura-Garcia
Microorganisms 2021, 9(7), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071367
Received: 11 June 2021 / Revised: 21 June 2021 / Accepted: 22 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salmonella and Salmonellosis)
Poultry feed is a leading source of Salmonella infection in poultry. In Switzerland, heat-treated feed is used to reduce Salmonella incursions into flocks in conventional poultry production. By contrast, organic feed is only treated with organic acids. In 2019, the Swiss National Reference Center for Enteropathogenic Bacteria identified the rare serovar S. Jerusalem from samples of organic soya feed. Further, in July 2020, the European Union’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed published a notification of the detection of S. Jerusalem in soya expeller from Italy. During 2020, seven S. Jerusalem isolates from seven different poultry productions distributed over six cantons in Switzerland were reported, providing further evidence of a possible outbreak. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), S. Jerusalem isolates from feed and from animals in Switzerland were further characterized and compared to S. Jerusalem from organic poultry farm environments in Italy. WGS results showed that feed isolates and isolates from Swiss and Italian poultry flocks belonged to the sequence type (ST)1028, grouped in a very tight cluster, and were closely related. This outbreak highlights the risk of spreading Salmonella by feed and emphasizes the need for a heat-treatment process for feed, also in organic poultry production. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; S. Jerusalem; poultry; organic; feed; soya; WGS; cgMLST; outbreak Salmonella; S. Jerusalem; poultry; organic; feed; soya; WGS; cgMLST; outbreak
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MDPI and ACS Style

Horlbog, J.A.; Stephan, R.; Stevens, M.J.A.; Overesch, G.; Kittl, S.; Napoleoni, M.; Silenzi, V.; Nüesch-Inderbinen, M.; Albini, S. Feedborne Salmonella enterica Serovar Jerusalem Outbreak in Different Organic Poultry Flocks in Switzerland and Italy Linked to Soya Expeller. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1367. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071367

AMA Style

Horlbog JA, Stephan R, Stevens MJA, Overesch G, Kittl S, Napoleoni M, Silenzi V, Nüesch-Inderbinen M, Albini S. Feedborne Salmonella enterica Serovar Jerusalem Outbreak in Different Organic Poultry Flocks in Switzerland and Italy Linked to Soya Expeller. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(7):1367. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Horlbog, Jule A., Roger Stephan, Marc J.A. Stevens, Gudrun Overesch, Sonja Kittl, Maira Napoleoni, Valentina Silenzi, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, and Sarah Albini. 2021. "Feedborne Salmonella enterica Serovar Jerusalem Outbreak in Different Organic Poultry Flocks in Switzerland and Italy Linked to Soya Expeller" Microorganisms 9, no. 7: 1367. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9071367

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