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Human Skin Microbiome: Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Skin Microbiota

Department of Microbiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Department of Microbiology and Food Technology, UTP University of Science and Technology, 85-029 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Department of Food Hygiene and Consumer Health, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 31 C.K. Norwida St., 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, UTP University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz, Al. prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Holger Brüggemann
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 543;
Received: 13 February 2021 / Revised: 28 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Skin Microbiota)
The skin is the largest organ of the human body and it protects the body from the external environment. It has become the topic of interest of researchers from various scientific fields. Microorganisms ensure the proper functioning of the skin. Of great importance, are the mutual relations between such microorganisms and their responses to environmental impacts, as dysbiosis may contribute to serious skin diseases. Molecular methods, used for microorganism identification, allow us to gain a better understanding of the skin microbiome. The presented article contains the latest reports on the skin microbiota in health and disease. The review discusses the relationship between a properly functioning microbiome and the body’s immune system, as well as the impact of internal and external factors on the human skin microbiome. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin; microbiome; internal factors; external factors; disinfection skin; microbiome; internal factors; external factors; disinfection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skowron, K.; Bauza-Kaszewska, J.; Kraszewska, Z.; Wiktorczyk-Kapischke, N.; Grudlewska-Buda, K.; Kwiecińska-Piróg, J.; Wałecka-Zacharska, E.; Radtke, L.; Gospodarek-Komkowska, E. Human Skin Microbiome: Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Skin Microbiota. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 543.

AMA Style

Skowron K, Bauza-Kaszewska J, Kraszewska Z, Wiktorczyk-Kapischke N, Grudlewska-Buda K, Kwiecińska-Piróg J, Wałecka-Zacharska E, Radtke L, Gospodarek-Komkowska E. Human Skin Microbiome: Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Skin Microbiota. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(3):543.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skowron, Krzysztof, Justyna Bauza-Kaszewska, Zuzanna Kraszewska, Natalia Wiktorczyk-Kapischke, Katarzyna Grudlewska-Buda, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Ewa Wałecka-Zacharska, Laura Radtke, and Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska. 2021. "Human Skin Microbiome: Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Skin Microbiota" Microorganisms 9, no. 3: 543.

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