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Open AccessArticle

Energy-Efficient Single-Stage Nitrite Shunt Denitrification with Saline Sewage through Concise Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Supply: Process Performance and Microbial Communities

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK
3
Environmental Engineering Technology Research Center, Chongqing Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Chongqing 401147, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060919
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Wastewater Treatment)
Single-stage nitrite shunt denitrification (through nitrite rather than nitrate) with low dissolved oxygen (DO) supply is a better alternative in terms of energy-efficiency, short-footprint, and low C/N-ratio requirement. This study investigates the optimal DO level with temperature effect, with saline sewage at the fixed hydraulic and solids retention times of 8 h and 8 d, respectively. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis corresponding with total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals in each operating condition were performed. Results showed that DO of 0.3 mg/L at 20 °C achieved over 60.7% and over 97.9% of TN and COD removal, respectively, suggesting that such condition achieved effective nitrite-oxidizing bacteria inhibition and efficient denitrification. An unexpected finding was that sulfur-reducing Haematobacter and nitrogen-fixing Geofilum and Shinella were highly abundant with the copredominance of ammonia-oxidizing Comamonas and Nitrosomonas, nitrite-oxidizing Limnohabitans, and denitrifying Simplicispira, Castellaniella, and Nitratireductor. Further, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) with respect to the operating conditions associated with phenotype prediction via R-based tool Tax4Fun was performed for a preliminary diagnosis of microbial functionality. The effects of DO, temperature, nitrite, and nitrate in various extents toward each predominant microbe were discussed. Collectively, DO is likely pivotal in single-stage nitrite shunt denitrification, as well as microbial communities, for energy-efficient saline sewage treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrite shunt denitrification; 16S rRNA sequencing; dissolve oxygen; total nitrogen removal nitrite shunt denitrification; 16S rRNA sequencing; dissolve oxygen; total nitrogen removal
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Zhuang, H.; Wu, Z.; Xu, L.; Leu, S.-Y.; Lee, P.-H. Energy-Efficient Single-Stage Nitrite Shunt Denitrification with Saline Sewage through Concise Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Supply: Process Performance and Microbial Communities. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 919.

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