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Open AccessArticle

Unravelling the Role of Melanin in Cd and Zn Tolerance and Accumulation of Three Dark Septate Endophytic Species

1
Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIEC, F-54000 Nancy, France
2
CTIFL, Centre de Carquefou, F-44483 Carquefou, France
3
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
4
Leibniz Institute for Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, 14979 Groβbeeren, Germany
5
Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, CNRS, Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, F-25211 Montbéliard, France
6
Université de Lorraine, F-54000 Nancy, France
7
Erfurt Research Centre for Horticultural Crops, University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, 99090 Erfurt, Germany
8
Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Hungary
9
Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, 1022 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040537
Received: 12 March 2020 / Revised: 30 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes and Their Interactions with Plants)
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are often trace element (TE)-tolerant fungi and are abundant in TE-polluted environments. The production of melanin, a black polymer found in cell walls, was hypothesized by several authors to play a role in the TE tolerance of DSEs. To test this hypothesis, we established a series of experiments using albino strains and melanin inhibitors and examined the responses to Cd and Zn. Six DSEs belonging to genera Cadophora sp., Leptodontidium sp. and Phialophora mustea, were evaluated. The strains mainly produced 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin whereas 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanin melanin was also synthetized. Cd and Zn decreased melanin synthesis in most of the strains. A reduction in melanin concentration in hyphae through the use of tricyclazole, an inhibitor of DHN-melanin synthesis, did not reduce the tolerance of the strains to Cd and Zn. Similarly, albino mutants of Leptodontidium sp. were not more sensitive to Cd and Zn than the WT strain. Moreover, tricyclazole-treated colonies accumulated less Cd but more Zn compared to untreated colonies. The Cd and Zn contents of Leptodontidium albino strains were variable and similar to that of the WT. The results suggest that melanin production is not an important functional trait that contributes to Cd and Zn tolerance, but might contribute to Cd accumulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cadophora sp.; kojic acid; Leptodontidium sp.; Phialophora mustea; sulcotrione; tricyclazole Cadophora sp.; kojic acid; Leptodontidium sp.; Phialophora mustea; sulcotrione; tricyclazole
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MDPI and ACS Style

Berthelot, C.; Zegeye, A.; Gaber, D.A.; Chalot, M.; Franken, P.; Kovács, G.M.; Leyval, C.; Blaudez, D. Unravelling the Role of Melanin in Cd and Zn Tolerance and Accumulation of Three Dark Septate Endophytic Species. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040537

AMA Style

Berthelot C, Zegeye A, Gaber DA, Chalot M, Franken P, Kovács GM, Leyval C, Blaudez D. Unravelling the Role of Melanin in Cd and Zn Tolerance and Accumulation of Three Dark Septate Endophytic Species. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(4):537. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Berthelot, Charlotte; Zegeye, Asfaw; Gaber, Dalia A.; Chalot, Michel; Franken, Philipp; Kovács, Gábor M.; Leyval, Corinne; Blaudez, Damien. 2020. "Unravelling the Role of Melanin in Cd and Zn Tolerance and Accumulation of Three Dark Septate Endophytic Species" Microorganisms 8, no. 4: 537. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040537

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