During the last few decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean-oil (SO). The microbiome and specific taxa composing it are dramatically affected by diet; specifically, by high-fat diets. Increasing evidence indicates the association between dysbiosis and health or disease state, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis pathogenesis in human and animal models. To investigate the effects of high SO intake, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with SO-based emulsion (SOE) for one month, followed by analyses of atherosclerosis-related biomarkers and microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal DNA. SOE-supplementation caused compositional changes to 64 taxa, including enrichment in Bacteroidetes, Mucispirillum, Prevotella and Ruminococcus, and decreased Firmicutes. These changes were previously associated with atherosclerosis in numerous studies. Among the shifted taxa, 40 significantly correlated with at least one atherosclerosis-related biomarker (FDR < 0.05), while 13 taxa positively correlated with the average of all biomarkers. These microbial alterations also caused a microbial-derived metabolic-pathways shift, including enrichment in different amino-acid metabolic-pathways known to be implicated in CVD. In conclusion, our results demonstrate dysbiosis following SOE supplementation associated with atherosclerosis-related biomarkers. These findings point to the microbiome as a possible mediator to CVD, and it may be implemented into non-invasive diagnostic tools or as potential therapeutic strategies.
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