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Natural Fungicolous Regulators of Biscogniauxia destructiva sp. nov. That Causes Beech Bark Tarcrust in Southern European (Fagus sylvatica) Forests

1
College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
2
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Montenegro, Mihaila Lalića 1, 81 000 Podgorica, Montenegro
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121999
Received: 10 November 2020 / Revised: 6 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Microbe Interactions)
Mycoparasites are a collection of fungicolous eukaryotic organisms that occur on and are antagonistic to a wide range of plant pathogenic fungi. To date, this fungal group has largely been neglected by biodiversity studies. However, this fungal group is of interest, as it may contain potential biocontrol agents of pathogenic fungi that cause beech Tarcrust disease (BTC), which has contributed to the devastation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. Biscogniauxia nummularia has been demonstrated to cause BTC. However, a trophic association between mycoparasites and pathogenic Biscogniauxia spp., has not been established. This study aimed to taxonomically identify and characterize Biscogniauxia, a fungus causing destructive BTC disease in European beech at Lovćen national park, Montenegro and to uncover the diversity of mycopathogens that are natural regulators of xylariaceous Biscogniauxia stroma formation, associated with beech decline. This finding is supported by distinctive phylogenetic and evolutionary characteristics, as well as unique morphological-microscopic fungal features indicating that Biscogniauxia from Montenegro, which is a major cause of BTC occurring in ancient beech forests at the edge of southern Fagus sylvatica distribution, may be described as a novel fungus specific to Fagus. Its evolutionary nuSSU–complete ITS–partial nuLSU rDNA phylogeny indicates its likely emergence by asexual fusion or introgressive hybridization between diverged B. nummularia and B. anceps species. The name Biscogniauxia destructiva is proposed for the novel fungus, as it is aggressive and highly destructive BTC disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tarcrust disease; beech forest; Biscogniauxia; fungicolous fungi; mycoparasites Tarcrust disease; beech forest; Biscogniauxia; fungicolous fungi; mycoparasites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vujanovic, V.; Kim, S.H.; Latinovic, J.; Latinovic, N. Natural Fungicolous Regulators of Biscogniauxia destructiva sp. nov. That Causes Beech Bark Tarcrust in Southern European (Fagus sylvatica) Forests. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121999

AMA Style

Vujanovic V, Kim SH, Latinovic J, Latinovic N. Natural Fungicolous Regulators of Biscogniauxia destructiva sp. nov. That Causes Beech Bark Tarcrust in Southern European (Fagus sylvatica) Forests. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121999

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vujanovic, Vladimir; Kim, Seon H.; Latinovic, Jelena; Latinovic, Nedeljko. 2020. "Natural Fungicolous Regulators of Biscogniauxia destructiva sp. nov. That Causes Beech Bark Tarcrust in Southern European (Fagus sylvatica) Forests" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121999

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