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Article

Tick Fauna and Associated Rickettsia, Theileria, and Babesia spp. in Domestic Animals in Sudan (North Kordofan and Kassala States)

1
Institute for Parasitology, Centre for Infection Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Buenteweg 17, 30559 Hanover, Germany
2
College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Hilat Kuku, Khartoum North 13321, Sudan
3
Veterinary Research Institute, Soba, Khartoum 11121, Sudan
4
Ministry of Animal Resources, Kassala 22271, Kassala State, Sudan
5
The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield AL9 7TA, Hertfordshire, UK
6
Veterinary Ambulance, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
7
Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany
8
Department of Parasitology, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
9
Gertrud Theiler Tick Museum, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
10
Evolutionary Genomics Group, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121969
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Tick-Borne Diseases Research)
Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have a major economic impact on animal production worldwide. In the present study, 2410 ticks were collected from January to August 2017 from livestock and other domestic animals in North Kordofan and Kassala, Sudan, for species identification and investigation of Rickettsia spp. and piroplasms, either individually or as pools containing up to 10 ticks by molecular methods. In total, 13 tick species were identified by morphology and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most frequent tick species were Hyalomma impeltatum (24.90%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (18.84%), Amblyomma lepidum (16.06%), and Rhipicephalus camicasi (12.49%). A pan-Rickettsia real-time PCR revealed an overall minimum infection rate (MIR) with Rickettsia spp. of 5.64% (136 positive tick pools/2410 total ticks). Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia aeschlimannii were the most frequently identified species by sequencing. Furthermore, the following highly pathogenic livestock parasites were detected: Theileria annulata, Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria equi, and Babesia caballi. The present study documented Rhipicephalus afranicus as well as Rickettsia conorii israelensis, Rickettsia massiliae, and Babesia pecorum for the first time in Sudan. These findings are significant for the animal production sector as well as in terms of One Health, as the detected Rickettsia spp. can cause serious illness in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hyalomma; Amblyomma; Rhipicephalus; Rickettsia spp.; piroplasms; tick-borne diseases; vector-borne diseases Hyalomma; Amblyomma; Rhipicephalus; Rickettsia spp.; piroplasms; tick-borne diseases; vector-borne diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Springer, A.; Shuaib, Y.A.; Isaa, M.H.; Ezz-Eldin, M.I.-E.; Osman, A.Y.; Yagoub, I.A.; Abdalla, M.A.; Bakiet, A.O.; Mohmed-Noor, S.E.-T.; Schaper, S.; Rieß, R.; Dobler, G.; Strube, C.; Bakkes, D.K.; Chitimia-Dobler, L. Tick Fauna and Associated Rickettsia, Theileria, and Babesia spp. in Domestic Animals in Sudan (North Kordofan and Kassala States). Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121969

AMA Style

Springer A, Shuaib YA, Isaa MH, Ezz-Eldin MI-E, Osman AY, Yagoub IA, Abdalla MA, Bakiet AO, Mohmed-Noor SE-T, Schaper S, Rieß R, Dobler G, Strube C, Bakkes DK, Chitimia-Dobler L. Tick Fauna and Associated Rickettsia, Theileria, and Babesia spp. in Domestic Animals in Sudan (North Kordofan and Kassala States). Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Springer, Andrea, Yassir A. Shuaib, Makarim H. Isaa, Malaz I.-E. Ezz-Eldin, Abdinasir Y. Osman, Idris A. Yagoub, Mohamed A. Abdalla, Amel O. Bakiet, Saad E.-T. Mohmed-Noor, Sabine Schaper, Ramona Rieß, Gerhard Dobler, Christina Strube, Deon K. Bakkes, and Lidia Chitimia-Dobler. 2020. "Tick Fauna and Associated Rickettsia, Theileria, and Babesia spp. in Domestic Animals in Sudan (North Kordofan and Kassala States)" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 1969. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121969

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