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Article

Simultaneous Genome Sequencing of Prosthecochloris ethylica and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans within a Syntrophic Mixture Reveals Unique Pili and Protein Interactions

1
College of Science and Technology, Bellevue University, Bellevue, NE 68005, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
3
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Passed away while this manuscript was in the final stages of preparation.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121939
Received: 1 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Biology of Phototrophic Bacteria)
Strains of Chloropseudomonas ethylica, 2-K, N2, and N3 are known to be composed of a syntrophic mixture of a green sulfur bacterium and a sulfur-reducing colorless component. Upon sequence analysis, the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterial component of strain N3 was dominant and was readily sequenced, but the less abundant sulfur-reducing bacterial component was apparent only when analyzed by metagenomic binning. Whole-genome comparison showed that the green bacterium belonged to the genus Prosthecochloris and apparently was a species for which there was no genome sequence on file. For comparison, we also sequenced the genome of Prosthecochloris sp. DSM 1685, which had previously been isolated from the 2-K mixture in pure culture and have shown that all three Prosthecochloris genomes belong to a new species, which we propose to be named Prosthecochloris ethylica comb. nov. Whole genomes were also sequenced for the isolated Desulfuromonas strains DSM 1675 (from strain 2-K) and DSM 1676 (from strain N2) and shown to be nearly identical to the genome found in the N3 mixture. The genome of the green sulfur bacterium contains large genes for agglutination proteins, similar to the ones proposed to be involved in larger photosynthetic consortia of Chlorochromatium aggregatum. In addition, we also identified several unique “tight adhesion (tad)” pili genes that are presumably involved in the formation of cell–cell interactions. The colorless component, on the other hand, contained a unique large multiheme cytochrome C and unique genes for e-pili (geopilin) formation, genetically clustered with a conserved ferredoxin gene, which are all expected to play an electron transfer role in the closed sulfur cycle in the syntrophic mixture. The findings from the simultaneous genome sequencing of the components of Cp. ethylica have implications for the phenomenon of direct interspecies interactions and coupled electron transfer in photosynthetic symbionts. The mechanisms for such interactions appear to be more common in the environment than originally anticipated. View Full-Text
Keywords: green sulfur bacteria; syntrophy; e-pili; adhesion protein; photosynthetic symbionts; large multiheme cytochrome; metagenomic binning green sulfur bacteria; syntrophy; e-pili; adhesion protein; photosynthetic symbionts; large multiheme cytochrome; metagenomic binning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kyndt, J.A.; Van Beeumen, J.J.; Meyer, T.E. Simultaneous Genome Sequencing of Prosthecochloris ethylica and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans within a Syntrophic Mixture Reveals Unique Pili and Protein Interactions. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1939. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121939

AMA Style

Kyndt JA, Van Beeumen JJ, Meyer TE. Simultaneous Genome Sequencing of Prosthecochloris ethylica and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans within a Syntrophic Mixture Reveals Unique Pili and Protein Interactions. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):1939. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121939

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kyndt, John A.; Van Beeumen, Jozef J.; Meyer, Terry E. 2020. "Simultaneous Genome Sequencing of Prosthecochloris ethylica and Desulfuromonas acetoxidans within a Syntrophic Mixture Reveals Unique Pili and Protein Interactions" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 1939. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121939

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