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Microorganisms—A Journal and a Unifying Concept for the Science of Microbiology
Open AccessArticle

Identification of Multiple Bacteriocins in Enterococcus spp. Using an Enterococcus-Specific Bacteriocin PCR Array

by Chris Henning 1,†, Dhiraj Gautam 2 and Peter Muriana 1,2,*,†
1
Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Monroe Street, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
2
Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Centre, Oklahoma State University, 109 FAPC Building, Monroe Street, Stillwater, OK 74078-6055, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Com
Microorganisms 2015, 3(1), 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms3010001
Received: 11 January 2015 / Revised: 16 January 2015 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Activity in Food)
Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus isolates obtained from food and animal sources, and demonstrating activity against Listeria monocytogenes, were screened for bacteriocin-related genes using a bacteriocin PCR array based on known enterococcal bacteriocin gene sequences in the NCBI GenBank database. The 22 bacteriocin-positive (Bac+) enterococci included En. durans (1), En. faecalis (4), En. faecium (12), En. hirae (3), and En. thailandicus (2). Enterocin A (entA), enterocins mr10A and mr10B (mr10AB), and bacteriocin T8 (bacA) were the most commonly found structural genes in order of decreasing prevalence. Forty-five bacteriocin genes were identified within the 22 Bac+ isolates, each containing at least one of the screened structural genes. Of the 22 Bac+ isolates, 15 possessed two bacteriocin genes, seven isolates contained three different bacteriocins, and three isolates contained as many as four different bacteriocin genes. These results may explain the high degree of bactericidal activity observed with various Bac+ Enterococcus spp. Antimicrobial activity against wild-type L. monocytogenes and a bacteriocin-resistant variant demonstrated bacteriocins having different modes-of-action. Mixtures of bacteriocins, especially those with different modes-of-action and having activity against foodborne pathogens, such as L. monocytogenes, may play a promising role in the preservation of food. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriocin; genes; Enterococcus; Listeria monocytogenes; food preservation bacteriocin; genes; Enterococcus; Listeria monocytogenes; food preservation
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Henning, C.; Gautam, D.; Muriana, P. Identification of Multiple Bacteriocins in Enterococcus spp. Using an Enterococcus-Specific Bacteriocin PCR Array. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 1-16.

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