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Article

Collateral Impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) for Onchocerciasis on Parasitological Indicators of Loa loa Infection

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Centre for Research on Filariasis and Other Tropical Diseases, P.O. Box 5797, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Médicale (FCRM), Brazzaville CG-BZV, Congo
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Faculty of Science and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, P.O. Box 69, Brazzaville, Congo
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Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 1364, Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121043
Received: 24 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad spectrum endectocide whose initial indication was onchocerciasis. Although loiasis is not among its indications, IVM also exhibits antiparasitic activity against Loa loa. IVM-based preventive chemotherapies (PCs), so-called community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), have led to the interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis in some foci. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Yabassi Health District where CDTI have been implemented since 20 years to fight onchocerciasis. All volunteers aged ≥ 5 years underwent daytime calibrated thick blood smears to search for L. loa microfilariae (mf). The prevalence of loiasis was 3.7% (95% CI: 2.2–6.2), significantly lower than its baseline prevalence (12.4%; 95% CI: 10.1–15.2; Chi-Square = 21.4; df = 1; p < 0.0001). Similarly, the microfilarial density was significantly low (mean = 1.8 mf/mL; SD = 13.6; max = 73,600) compared to baseline microfilarial density (mean = 839.3 mf/mL; SD = 6447.1; max = 130,840; Wilcoxon W = 179,904.5; p < 0.0001). This study revealed that the endemicity level of loiasis was significantly low compared to its baseline value, indicating a significant impact of IVM-based PC on this filarial disease. However, transmission is still ongoing, and heavily infected individuals are still found in communities, supporting why some individuals are still experiencing severe adverse events despite > 2 decades of CDTI in this Health District. View Full-Text
Keywords: onchocerciasis; CDTI; loiasis; collateral impact; Cameroon onchocerciasis; CDTI; loiasis; collateral impact; Cameroon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nana-Djeunga, H.C.; Lenou-Nanga, C.G.; Donfo-Azafack, C.; Djune-Yemeli, L.; Fossuo-Thotchum, F.; Domche, A.; Litchou-Tchuinang, A.V.; Bopda, J.; Mbickmen-Tchana, S.; Nkoa, T.; Penlap, V.; Ntoumi, F.; Kamgno, J. Collateral Impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) for Onchocerciasis on Parasitological Indicators of Loa loa Infection. Pathogens 2020, 9, 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121043

AMA Style

Nana-Djeunga HC, Lenou-Nanga CG, Donfo-Azafack C, Djune-Yemeli L, Fossuo-Thotchum F, Domche A, Litchou-Tchuinang AV, Bopda J, Mbickmen-Tchana S, Nkoa T, Penlap V, Ntoumi F, Kamgno J. Collateral Impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) for Onchocerciasis on Parasitological Indicators of Loa loa Infection. Pathogens. 2020; 9(12):1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C., Cédric G. Lenou-Nanga, Cyrille Donfo-Azafack, Linda Djune-Yemeli, Floribert Fossuo-Thotchum, André Domche, Arsel V. Litchou-Tchuinang, Jean Bopda, Stève Mbickmen-Tchana, Thérèse Nkoa, Véronique Penlap, Francine Ntoumi, and Joseph Kamgno. 2020. "Collateral Impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) for Onchocerciasis on Parasitological Indicators of Loa loa Infection" Pathogens 9, no. 12: 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121043

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