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Open AccessArticle

Natural Feed Additives Modulate Immunity and Mitigate Infection with Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa: Cnidaria) in Common Carp: A Pilot Study

1
Biology Center of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Parasitology, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
3
Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre, 4016 Stavanger, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121013
Received: 26 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Parasites and Immunology)
Myxozoans are a diverse group of cnidarian parasites, including important pathogens in different aquaculture species, without effective legalized treatments for fish destined for human consumption. We tested the effect of natural feed additives on immune parameters of common carp and in the course of a controlled laboratory infection with the myxozoan Sphaerospora molnari. Carp were fed a base diet enriched with 0.5% curcumin or 0.12% of a multi-strain yeast fraction, before intraperitoneal injection with blood stages of S. molnari. We demonstrate the impact of these treatments on respiratory burst, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production, adaptive IgM+ B cell responses, S. molnari-specific antibody titers, and on parasite numbers. Both experimental diets enriched B cell populations prior to infection and postponed initial parasite proliferation in the blood. Curcumin-fed fish showed a decrease in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide production and B cell density at late-stage infection, likely due to its anti-inflammatory properties, favoring parasite propagation. In contrast, multi-strain yeast fraction (MsYF)-fed fish harbored the highest S. molnari-specific antibody titer, in combination with the overall lowest parasite numbers. The results demonstrate that yeast products can be highly beneficial for the outcome of myxozoan infections and could be used as effective feed additives in aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: in-feed; curcumin; yeast; parasite; fish; innate immunity; adaptive immunity in-feed; curcumin; yeast; parasite; fish; innate immunity; adaptive immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ganeva, V.O.; Korytář, T.; Pecková, H.; McGurk, C.; Mullins, J.; Yanes-Roca, C.; Gela, D.; Lepič, P.; Policar, T.; Holzer, A.S. Natural Feed Additives Modulate Immunity and Mitigate Infection with Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa: Cnidaria) in Common Carp: A Pilot Study. Pathogens 2020, 9, 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121013

AMA Style

Ganeva VO, Korytář T, Pecková H, McGurk C, Mullins J, Yanes-Roca C, Gela D, Lepič P, Policar T, Holzer AS. Natural Feed Additives Modulate Immunity and Mitigate Infection with Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa: Cnidaria) in Common Carp: A Pilot Study. Pathogens. 2020; 9(12):1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ganeva, Vyara O.; Korytář, Tomáš; Pecková, Hana; McGurk, Charles; Mullins, Julia; Yanes-Roca, Carlos; Gela, David; Lepič, Pavel; Policar, Tomáš; Holzer, Astrid S. 2020. "Natural Feed Additives Modulate Immunity and Mitigate Infection with Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa: Cnidaria) in Common Carp: A Pilot Study" Pathogens 9, no. 12: 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121013

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