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Pathogens 2018, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030071

Evaluation of the Cleaning Procedure Efficacy in Prevention of Nosocomial Infections in Healthcare Facilities Using Cultural Method Associated with High Sensitivity Luminometer for ATP Detection

1
Department of Translational Research, N.T.M.S., University of Pisa, 56123 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Pubblic Health and Hygiene, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, 56124 Pontedera, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract

In healthcare facilities, environmental surfaces may be a reservoir of infectious agents even though cleaning and disinfection practices play a role in the control of healthcare-associated infections. In this study, the effectiveness of cleaning/disinfection procedures has been evaluated in two hospital areas, which have different risk category classifications. According to the contract with the cleaning service, after the daily ambulatory activities, the housekeeping staff apply an alcohol-based detergent followed by a chlorine-based disinfectant (2% Antisapril, Angelini; 540 mg/L active chlorine), properly diluted and sprayed. The contract provides for the use of disposable microfiber wipes which must be replaced with new ones in each health out-patient department. Surface contamination was analyzed using cultural methods and ATP detection, performed with a high-sensitivity luminometer. The values 100 CFU/cm2 and 40 RLU/cm2 were considered as the threshold values for medium-risk category areas, while 250 CFU/cm2 and 50 RLU/cm2 were defined for the low-risk category ones. Air quality was evaluated using active and passive sampling microbiological methods and particle count (0.3 μm–10 μm) detection. The cleaning/disinfection procedure reduced the medium bacterial counts from 32 ± 56 CFU/cm2 to 2 ± 3 CFU/cm2 in the low-risk area and from 25 ± 40 CFU/cm2 to 7 ± 11 CFU/cm2 in the medium-risk one. Sample numbers exceeding the threshold values decreased from 3% and 13% to 1% and 5%, respectively. RLU values also showed a reduction in the samples above the thresholds from 76% to 13% in the low-risk area. From the air samples collected using the active method, we observed a reduction of 60% in wound care and 53% in an ambulatory care visit. From the air samples collected using the passive method, we highlighted a 71.4% and 50% reduction in microbial contamination in the medium-risk area and in the low-risk one, respectively. The 10 μm size particle counts decreased by 52.7% in wound care and by 63% in the ambulatory care visit. Correct surface sanitation proved crucial for the reduction of microbial contamination in healthcare settings, and plays an important role in ensuring air quality in hospital settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental surfaces; air quality; ATP bioluminometry environmental surfaces; air quality; ATP bioluminometry
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Casini, B.; Tuvo, B.; Totaro, M.; Aquino, F.; Baggiani, A.; Privitera, G. Evaluation of the Cleaning Procedure Efficacy in Prevention of Nosocomial Infections in Healthcare Facilities Using Cultural Method Associated with High Sensitivity Luminometer for ATP Detection. Pathogens 2018, 7, 71.

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