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Correction published on 20 April 2018, see Pathogens 2018, 7(2), 45.
Open AccessArticle

Persistence of Norovirus GII Genome in Drinking Water and Wastewater at Different Temperatures

Department of Health Security, Expert Microbiology Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 48;
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
Human norovirus (NoV) causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide suggesting their ability to persist and survive for extended periods in the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of the NoV GII genome in drinking water and wastewater at three different temperatures (3 °C, 21 °C, and 36 °C). The persistence of two NoV GII inoculums (extracted from stool) and an indigenous NoV GII were studied. The samples were collected for up to one year from drinking water and for up to 140 days from wastewater. Molecular methods (RT-qPCR) were used to assess the decay of the NoV genome. Decay rate coefficients were determined from the fitted decay curves using log-linear and/or non-linear model equations. Results showed significant differences in the decay kinetics of NoV genome between the temperatures, matrices, and virus strains. The persistence of NoV was higher in drinking water compared to wastewater, and the cold temperature assisted persistence at both matrices. Differences between the persistence of NoV strains were also evident and, particularly, indigenous NoVs persisted better than spiked NoVs in wastewater. The decay constants obtained in this study can be utilized to assess the fate of the NoV genome in different water environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; wastewater; microbial contamination; norovirus; persistence drinking water; wastewater; microbial contamination; norovirus; persistence
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Kauppinen, A.; Miettinen, I.T. Persistence of Norovirus GII Genome in Drinking Water and Wastewater at Different Temperatures. Pathogens 2017, 6, 48.

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