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Identification of Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines IL-1α-, IL-4-, IL-6-, IL-12-, IL-13-, IL-17A-, TNF-α-, and IFN-γ-Producing Cells in the Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis

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The Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Rīga Stradiņš University, 1010 Rīga, Latvia
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Research and Innovation Centre Pro-Akademia, 95-050 Konstantynów Łódzki, Poland
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Seqomics Biotechnology Ltd., 6782 Morahalom, Hungary
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Biological Research Center, Plant Biology Institute, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
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Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
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ICREA, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Filippa Addis
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030372
Received: 9 February 2022 / Revised: 11 March 2022 / Accepted: 15 March 2022 / Published: 17 March 2022
In naturally occurring bovine mastitis, effects of infection depend on the host inflammatory response, including the effects of secreted cytokines. Knowledge about the inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in milk cells of free-stall barn dairy cows and in naturally occurring mastitis is lacking as most studies focus on induced mastitis. Hereby, the aim of the study was to determine inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in the milk of dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis. The following examinations of milk samples were performed: differential counting of somatic cells (SCC), bacteriological examination, and immunocytochemical analysis. Mean SCC increased in subclinical and clinical mastitis cases. The number of pathogenic mastitis-causing bacteria on plates increased in subclinical mastitis cases but decreased in clinical mastitis. The inflammatory and regulatory markers in the milk cells of healthy cows showed the highest mean cell numbers (%). In mastitis cases, immunoreactivity was more pronounced for IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Data about subclinical and clinical mastitis demonstrate inflammatory responses to intramammary infection driven by IL-1α, IL-4, and IL-17A. Moreover, the host defense response in mastitis is characterized by continuation or resolution of initial inflammation. IL-12 and INF-γ immunoreactivity was recognized to differ mastitis cases from the relative health status. View Full-Text
Keywords: mastitis; bovine; cytokines; inflammation; immunohistochemistry; milk; diagnosis mastitis; bovine; cytokines; inflammation; immunohistochemistry; milk; diagnosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vitenberga-Verza, Z.; Pilmane, M.; Šerstņova, K.; Melderis, I.; Gontar, Ł.; Kochański, M.; Drutowska, A.; Maróti, G.; Prieto-Simón, B. Identification of Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines IL-1α-, IL-4-, IL-6-, IL-12-, IL-13-, IL-17A-, TNF-α-, and IFN-γ-Producing Cells in the Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis. Pathogens 2022, 11, 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030372

AMA Style

Vitenberga-Verza Z, Pilmane M, Šerstņova K, Melderis I, Gontar Ł, Kochański M, Drutowska A, Maróti G, Prieto-Simón B. Identification of Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines IL-1α-, IL-4-, IL-6-, IL-12-, IL-13-, IL-17A-, TNF-α-, and IFN-γ-Producing Cells in the Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis. Pathogens. 2022; 11(3):372. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030372

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vitenberga-Verza, Zane, Māra Pilmane, Ksenija Šerstņova, Ivars Melderis, Łukasz Gontar, Maksymilian Kochański, Andżelika Drutowska, Gergely Maróti, and Beatriz Prieto-Simón. 2022. "Identification of Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines IL-1α-, IL-4-, IL-6-, IL-12-, IL-13-, IL-17A-, TNF-α-, and IFN-γ-Producing Cells in the Milk of Dairy Cows with Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis" Pathogens 11, no. 3: 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030372

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