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Open AccessArticle

Gendered and Racial Injustices in American Food Systems and Cultures

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School of Social Transformations, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6403, USA
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School of Philosophy, Historical, and Religious Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
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The Design School, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6403, USA
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School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 875502, USA
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School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 875603, USA
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School of International Letters and Cultures, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-0202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Humanities 2021, 10(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/h10020066
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Cultures & Critical Sustainability)
Multiple factors create food injustices in the United States. They occur in different societal sectors and traverse multiple scales, from the constrained choices of the industrialized food system to legal and corporate structures that replicate entrenched racial and gender inequalities, to cultural expectations around food preparation and consumption. Such injustices further harm already disadvantaged groups, especially women and racial minorities, while also exacerbating environmental deterioration. This article consists of five sections that employ complementary approaches in the humanities, design studies, and science and technology studies. The authors explore cases that represent structural injustices in the current American food system, including: the racialized and gendered effects of food systems and cultures on both men and women; the misguided and de-territorialized global branding of the Mediterranean Diet as a universal ideal; the role of food safety regulations around microbes in reinforcing racialized food injustices; and the benefits of considering the American food system and all of its parts as designed artifacts that can be redesigned. The article concludes by discussing how achieving food justice can simultaneously promote sustainable food production and consumption practices—a process that, like the article itself, invites scholars and practitioners to actively design our food system in ways that empower different stakeholders and emphasize the importance of collaboration and interconnection. View Full-Text
Keywords: food systems; race; justice; food safety; diet; design food systems; race; justice; food safety; diet; design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kitch, S.; McGregor, J.; Mejía, G.M.; El-Sayed, S.; Spackman, C.; Vitullo, J. Gendered and Racial Injustices in American Food Systems and Cultures. Humanities 2021, 10, 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/h10020066

AMA Style

Kitch S, McGregor J, Mejía GM, El-Sayed S, Spackman C, Vitullo J. Gendered and Racial Injustices in American Food Systems and Cultures. Humanities. 2021; 10(2):66. https://doi.org/10.3390/h10020066

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kitch, Sally; McGregor, Joan; Mejía, G. M.; El-Sayed, Sara; Spackman, Christy; Vitullo, Juliann. 2021. "Gendered and Racial Injustices in American Food Systems and Cultures" Humanities 10, no. 2: 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/h10020066

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