Settlement and Integration Needs of Skilled Immigrants in Canada
2. Concepts Related to Settlement and Integration of Skilled Immigrants
3. Challenges to Effective Social and Economic Integration of Skilled Immigrants
3.1. Information and Guidance
3.3. Language and Culture
3.4. Health & Wellbeing
Conflicts of Interest
- Alberta Employment and Immigration. 2010. A Foreign Qualification Recognition Plan for Alberta. Available online: https://work.alberta.ca/documents/foreign-qualification-recognition-plan-for-Alberta.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2017).
- Alboim, Naomi, and Elizabeth McIsaac. 2007. Making the connections: Ottawa’s role in immigrant employment. IRPP Choices 13: 1–24. [Google Scholar]
- Ali, Jennifer. 2002. Mental health of Canada’s immigrants. Supplement to Health Reports 13: 101–11. [Google Scholar]
- Aydemir, Abdurrahman, and Mikal Skuterud. 2005. Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada’s immigration cohorts: 1966–2000. Canadian Journal of Economics 38: 641–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Banerjee, Rupa, and Mai Phan. 2014. Licensing Requirements and Occupational Mobility among Highly Skilled New Immigrants in Canada. Relations Industrielles 69: 290–315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Banerjee, Rupa, and Anil Verma. 2011. Post-migration education among recent adult immigrants to Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration 13: 59–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bergeron, Pascale, Nathalie Auger, and Denis Hamel. 2009. Weight, general health and mental health: Status of diverse subgroups of immigrants in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 100: 215–20. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Boyd, Monica, and Naomi Alboim. 2012. Managing international migration: The Canadian case. In Managing Immigration and Diversity in Canada: A Transatlantic Dialogue in the New Age of Migration. Edited by Dan Rodriguez-Garcia. Montreal: McGill-Queens UP, pp. 123–50. [Google Scholar]
- Brooks, Ann K. 2009. Complexity and community: Finding what works in workplace ESL. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education 121: 65–74. [Google Scholar]
- Caidi, Nadia, and Danielle Allard. 2005. Social inclusion of newcomers to Canada: An information problem? Library & Information Science Research 27: 302–24. [Google Scholar]
- Casson, Sandhya. 2013. Services and Support for Recently Immigrated Women Looking for Training or Work in Peel Region. Integrated Studies Project. Athabasca: Athabasca University, Available online: http://dtpr.lib.athabascau.ca/action/download.php?filename=mais/sandhyacassonproject.pdf (accessed on 1 August 2017).
- Central Intelligence Agency. 2018. The World Factbook. Available online: https://www.cia.gov/cgi-bin/comment_form.cgi (accessed on 13 April 2018).
- Centre for Community Based Research. 2010. The Canadian Immigration Integration Project (CIIP) Pilot Final Evaluation Report. Kitchener: Centre for Community Based Research, Available online: http://www.newcomersuccess.ca/images/stories/reports/2010-november-final-evaluation-report.pdf (accessed on 1 August 2017).
- Chadwick, Kathryn A., and Patricia A. Collins. 2015. Examining the relationship between social support availability, urban center size, and self-perceived mental health of recent immigrants to Canada: A mixed-methods analysis. Social Science & Medicine 128: 220–30. [Google Scholar]
- Chen, Charles P. 2008. Career guidance with immigrants. In International Handbook of Career Guidance. Edited by James A. Athanasou and Raoul Van Esbroeck. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 419–42. [Google Scholar]
- Chen, Cynthia, Peter Smith, and Cameron Mustard. 2010. The prevalence of over-qualification and its association with health status among occupationally active new immigrants to Canada. Ethnicity & Health 15: 601–19. [Google Scholar]
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). 2001. Immigrant Integration in Canada: Policy Objectives, Program Delivery, and Challenges. Available online: http://atwork.settlement.org/downloads/atwork/Immigrant_Integration_in_Canada_discussion_paper_Hauck_May01.pdf (accessed on 15 March 2017).
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). 2011. Evaluation of the Immigrant Settlement and Adaptation Program (ISAP). Available online: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/evaluation/isap/2011/section4.asp (accessed on 15 March 2017).
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). 2015. Facts and Figures 2014—Immigration overview: Permanent residents. Available online: https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/2fbb56bd-eae7-4582-af7d-a197d185fc93 (accessed on 28 April 2018).
- Dean, Jennifer Asanin, and Kathi Wilson. 2009. ‘Education? It is irrelevant to my job now. It makes me very depressed’: Exploring the health impacts of under/unemployment among highly skilled recent immigrants in Canada. Ethnicity & Health 14: 185–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Derwing, Tracey M., and Erin Waugh. 2012. Language Skills and the Social Integration of Canada’s Adult Immigrants. IRPP Study. Available online: http://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/diversity-immigration-and-integration/language-skills-and-the-social-integration-of-canadas-adult-immigrants/IRPP-Study-no31.pdf (accessed on 29 April 2018).
- Desjardins, Dawn, and Kirsten Cornelson. 2011. Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes in Canada: The Benefits of Addressing Wage and Employment Gaps. Toronto: Royal Bank of Canada. [Google Scholar]
- Diaz, Ruth Leonara. 2017. Immigration and Depression in Canada: Is There Really a Healthy Immigrant Effect? What is the Pattern of Depression by Time since Immigration? Master’s thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Available online: https://prism.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/handle/11023/3734/ucalgary_2017_diaz_ruth.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 11 April 2018).
- Dorais, Michel. 2002. Immigration and integration through a social cohesion perspective. Horizons 5: 4–5. [Google Scholar]
- Drolet, Julie, Miu Chung Yan, and Jenny Francis. 2012. A Working Paper on Settlement, Integration, and Welcoming Communities Domain in British Columbia, 1996–2012. Metropolis BC Working Paper #12-07. Available online: http://mbc.metropolis.net/assets/uploads/files/wp/2012/WP12-07.pdf (accessed on 12 March 2017).
- Drolet, Julie, Leah Hamilton, and Victoria Esses. 2015. Labour Market Integration Project: Improving Collaboration in Calgary for Better Employment Outcomes for Immigrants. Final Report. Available online: http://aaisa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/labour-market-integration-project.pdf (accessed on 31 January 2018).
- Elabor-Idemudia, Patience. 2005. Immigrant integration in Canada: Policies, programs and challenges. In Possibilities and Limitations: Multicultural Policies and Programs in Canada. Edited by Carl E. James. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing, pp. 58–75. [Google Scholar]
- Esses, Victoria M., Joerg Dietz, Caroline Bennett-Abuayyash, and Chetan Joshi. 2007. Prejudices in the workplaces: The role of bias against visible minorities in the devaluation of immigrants’ foreign-acquired qualifications and credentials. Canadian Issues Spring: 114–18. [Google Scholar]
- Fuller-Thomson, Esme, Andrea M. Noack, and Usha George. 2011. Health decline among recent immigrants to Canada: Findings from a nationally-representative longitudinal survey. Canadian Journal of Public Health 102: 273–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Galiev, Albert, and Sepideh Masoodi. 2012. Language Barriers to Integration: A Canadian Perspective. Forum for Inter-American Research 5. Available online: http://interamerica.de/volume-5-2/galiev-masoodi/ (accessed on 1 August 2017).
- Gauthier, Carol-Anne. 2016. Obstacles to socioeconomic integration of highly-skilled immigrant women. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 35: 17–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- George, Usha, and Ferzana Chaze. 2009. “Tell me what I need to know”: South Asian women, social capital and settlement. Journal of International Migration and Integration 10: 265–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- George, Usha, and Ferzana Chaze. 2012. Credential assessment of internationally trained professionals: How effective is the process for the purpose of securing employment? Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies 10: 124–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- George, Usha, Mary S. Thomson, Ferzana Chaze, and Sepali Guruge. 2015. Immigrant mental health, a public health issue: Looking back and moving forward. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12: 13624–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Goldberg, Michelle P. 2002. The Facts Are In! A Study of the Characteristics and Experiences of Immigrants Seeking Employment in Regulated Professions in Ontario. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities). [Google Scholar]
- Government of Alberta. 2018. Calgary Region Employment, Training and Career Services Directory. Available online: https://www.alberta.ca/assets/documents/css-calgary-employment-services-directory.pdf (accessed on 29 April 2018).
- Government of Canada. 2006. Consultations on the Settlement and Language Training Services Needs of Newcomers. Available online: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2007/cic/Ci51-199-1-2006-1E.pdf (accessed on 5 August 2017).
- Government of Canada. 2015a. Funding Guidelines: National Call for Proposals 2015 Settlement, Resettlement Assistance and Inter-Action (Multiculturalism) Programs. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/department/grants-contributions-funding/documents/pdf/funding-guidelines-2015-eng.pdf (accessed on 30 April 2018).
- Government of Canada. 2015b. Survival to Success: Transforming Immigrant Outcomes. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/foreign-credential-recognition/consultations.html (accessed on 10 April 2018).
- Government of Canada. 2017a. Immigrate as a Skilled Worker through Express Entry. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/express-entry-employer.html (accessed on 31 January 2018).
- Government of Canada. 2017b. Strategic Outcomes and Program Alignment Architecture 2013/2014. Available online: https://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/about/sopaa/2013-2014 (accessed on 31 October 2017).
- Government of Canada. 2017c. Language Requirements—Skilled Immigrants (Express Entry). Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/express-entry/become-candidate/eligibility/language-requirements.html (accessed on 31 October 2017).
- Government of Canada. 2017d. Speaking Notes for Ahmed Hussen, Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship at a News Conference on Canada’s Immigration Plan for 2018. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2017/11/speaking_notes_forahmedhussenministerofimmigrationrefugeesandcit.html?_ga=2.150483958.1950152141.1510688199-649865129.1503003717 (accessed on 31 January 2018).
- Government of Canada. 2017e. 2017 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/annual-report-parliament-immigration-2017.html#sec4_1 (accessed on 13 April 2018).
- Government of Canada. 2017f. Language Classes Funded by the Government of Canada. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/new-immigrants/new-life-canada/improve-english-french/classes.html (accessed on 5 August 2017).
- Grant, Peter R. 2007. Accessing the higher echelons of a host country’s labour market: Policy directions from the personal experiences of skilled immigrants. Journal of International Migration and Integration 8: 135–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Green, Alan G., and David A. Green. 2004. The goal of Canada’s immigration policy: A historical perspective. Canadian Journal of Urban Research 13: 102–39. [Google Scholar]
- Green, David A., and Christopher Worswick. 2009. Earnings of Immigrant Men in Canada: The Roles of Labour Market Entry Effects and Returns to Foreign Experience. Prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada. University of British Columbia, Department of Economics. Available online: http://www.economics.ubc.ca/files/2013/05/pdf_paper_david-green-entry-earnings-immigrant-men.pdf (accessed on 12 March 2017).
- Grenier, Gilles, and Li Xue. 2011. Canadian immigrants’ access to a first job in their occupation. International Migration & Integration 12: 275–303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grondin, Chantal. 2005. Knowledge of Official Languages among New Immigrants: How Important Is It in the Labor Market; Statistics Canada Publications Catalogue No. 89-624-XIE; Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
- Handford, Penny, and Khim Tan. 2003. Settlement Accord. Discussion paper developed for National Settlement Conference II, held in Calgary October 2–5. Ottawa: Voluntary Sector Forum. [Google Scholar]
- Hathiyani, Abdulhamid. 2017. A Bridge to Where?: An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Bridging Programs for Internationally Trained Professionals in Toronto. Ann Arbor: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. [Google Scholar]
- Health Canada. 2008. Mental Health—Coping with Stress. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/healthy-living/your-health/lifestyles/your-health-mental-health-coping-stress-health-canada-2008.html (accessed on 12 April 2018).
- Henry, Frances, and Carol Tator. 2006. The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society, 3rd ed. Toronto: Thomson/Nelson. [Google Scholar]
- Houle, René, and Lahouaria Yssaad. 2010. Recognition of newcomers’ foreign credentials and work experience. Perspectives on Labour and Income 22: 18–33. [Google Scholar]
- Hum, Derek, and Wayne Simpson. 2004. Economic integration of immigrants to Canada: A short survey. Canadian Journal of Urban Research 13: 46–61. [Google Scholar]
- Hyman, Ilene. 2009. Racism as a Determinant of Immigrant Health. Policy Brief. Available online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.516.7501&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed on 31 October 2017).
- Institute for Work and Health. 2011. Over-Qualified Immigrants at Risk of Poorer Mental Health. Available online: http://www.wsps.ca/Information-Resources/Articles/Over-qualified-immigrants-at-risk-of-poorer-mental.aspx (accessed on 31 January 2018).
- Jasso, Guillermina, Douglas Massey, Mark R. Rosenzweig, and James P. Smith. 2004. Immigrant health—Selectivity and acculturation. In Critical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life. Edited by Norman B. Anderson, Randy A. Bulatao and Barney Cohen. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, pp. 227–66. [Google Scholar]
- Kaushik, Vibha, Christine Walsh, and Diana Haefele. 2016. Social integration of immigrants within the linguistically diverse workplace: A systematic review. Review of Social Sciences 1: 15–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kennedy, Steven, Michael P. Kidd, James Ted McDonald, and Nicholas Biddle. 2015. The healthy immigrant effect: Patterns and evidence from four countries. Journal of International Migration and Integration 16: 317–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, Peter S. 2001. The market worth of immigrant’ educational credentials. Canadian Public Policy 27: 23–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, Peter S. 2003. Deconstructing Canada’s Discourse of Immigrant Integration. Working Paper No. WP04-03. Available online: http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/Cda-Discourse-Immigrant-Int.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2017).
- Lou, You, and Roderic Beaujot. 2005. What Happens to the ‘Healthy Immigrant Effect: The Mental Health of Immigrants to Canada. Discussion paper No. 05-15. London: Population Studies Centre, University of Western Ontario. [Google Scholar]
- Lowe, S., and A. Ortiz. 2015. Considering Canada: A Look at the Views of Prospective Skilled Immigrants. New York: World Education Services. [Google Scholar]
- Man, Guida. 2004. Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. Women’s Studies International Forum 27: 135–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McDonald, James Tedd, and Steven Kennedy. 2004. Insights into the healthy immigrant effect: Health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada. Social Science and Medicine 59: 1613–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mental Health Commission of Canada. 2012. Changing Directions Changing Lives: The Mental Health Strategy of Canada. Available online: https://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/sites/default/files/MHStrategy_Strategy_ENG.pdf (accessed on 12 April 2018).
- Meraj, Naila. 2015. Settlement Experiences of Professional Immigrant Women in Canada, USA, UK and Australia. Master of Science thesis, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Submitted. Available online: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4230&context=etd (accessed on 1 March 2017).
- Meshefedjian, Garbis A., Viviane Leaune, Marie-Ève Simoneau, and Mylène Drouin. 2014. Disparities in lifestyle habits and health related factors of montreal immigrants: Is immigration an important exposure variable in public health? Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 16: 790–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Murphy, Jill. 2010. The Settlement and Integration Needs of Immigrants: A Literature Review. The Ottawa Local Immigration Partnership. Available online: http://olip-plio.ca/knowledge-base/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Olip-Review-of-Literature-Final-EN.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2017).
- Muthui, Daniel. 2012. The Role of Stakeholders in Integrating Skilled Immigrants into the Workforce. Edmonton: Edmonton Social Planning Council, Available online: https://www.edmontonsocialplanning.ca/index.php/resources/digital-resources/f-social-issues/f13-immigration/965-2012-espc-social-justice-internship-the-role-of-stakeholders-in-integrating-skilled-immigrants-into-the-workforce (accessed on 31 October 2017).
- Mwarigha, M. Shadrack. 2002. Towards a Framework for Local Responsibility: Taking Action to End the Current Limbo in Immigrant Settlement—Toronto. Toronto: Maytree Foundation. [Google Scholar]
- Newbold, Bruce. 2009. The short-term health of Canada’s new immigrant arrivals: Evidence from LSIC. Ethnicity & Health 14: 315–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Newbold, K. Bruce, and Jeff Danforth. 2003. Health status and Canada’s immigrant population. Social Science and Medicine 57: 1881–995. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Newton, Stacey, Jennifer Pillay, and Gina Higginbottom. 2012. The migration and transitioning experiences of internationally educated nurses: A global perspective. Journal of Nursing Management 20: 534–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ng, Edward. 2011. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates. Health Reports 22: 25–29. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Ng, Edward, and Walter R. Omariba. 2010. Is There a Healthy Immigrant Effect in Mental health? Evidences from Population-Based Health Surveys in Canada. Canadian Issues. Available online: http://www.metropolis.net/pdfs/immigrant_mental_health_10aug10.pdf (accessed on 15 March 2017).
- Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants. 2017. What Are Bridging Programs for Internationally-Trained Professionals and Tradespeople? Available online: https://settlement.org/ontario/employment/plan-my-career/job-skills-training/what-are-bridging-programs-for-internationally-trained-professionals-and-tradespeople/ (accessed on 10 April 2018).
- Pathways to Prosperity. 2018. Economic Integration of Immigrants in Canada. Available online: http://p2pcanada.ca/research/economic-integration-of-immigrants-in-canada/ (accessed on 13 April 2018).
- Pharmacists’ Gateway Canada. 2014. What You Need to Know. Available online: http://www.pharmacistsgatewaycanada.ca/what-education-bridging.shtml (accessed on 10 April 2018).
- Picot, Garnett, and Arthur Sweetman. 2012. Making it in Canada: Immigration Outcomes and Policies. IRPP Study No. 29. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy. [Google Scholar]
- Puyat, Joseph H. 2013. Is the influence of social support on mental health the same for immigrants and non-immigrants? Journal of Immigrant Mental Health 15: 598–605. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2005. Tapping immigrants’ skills: New directions for Canadian immigration policy in the knowledge economy. Choices 11: 409–32. [Google Scholar]
- Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2007. Immigrant employment success in Canada, Part I: Individual and contextual causes. Journal of International Migration and Integration 8: 11–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reitz, Jeffrey G., Josh Curtis, and Jennifer Elrick. 2014. Immigrant skill utilization: Trends and policy issues. Journal of International Migration and Integration 15: 1–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Riddel, W. Craig, Christopher Worswick, and David A. Green. 2016. How does increasing immigration affect the economy? In Policy Options. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy. [Google Scholar]
- Robert, Anne-Marie, and Tara Gilkinson. 2012. Mental Health and Well-Being of Recent Immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/reports-statistics/research/mental-health-well-being-recent-immigrants-canada-evidence-longitudinal-survey-immigrants-canada-lsic.html#literature (accessed on 11 April 2018).
- Sakamoto, Izumi, Matthew Chin, and Malina Young. 2010. “Canadian experience,” employment challenges, and skilled immigrants: A close look through “tacit knowledge”. Canadian Social Work 12: 145–51. Available online: http://www.beyondcanadianexperience.com/sites/default/files/csw-sakamoto.pdf (accessed on 17 August 2017).
- Sidney, Mara. 2014. Settling in: A comparison of local immigrant organizations in the United States and Canada. International Journal of Canadian Studies 49: 105–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, Katherine L. W., Flora I. Matheson, Rahim Moineddin, and Richard H. Glazier. 2007. Gender, income and immigration differences in depression in Canadian urban centres. Canadian Journal of Public Health 98: 149–53. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Social Planning Council of Ottawa. 2009. Immigrants’ Economic Integration: Successes and Challenges. Project Report. Available online: http://www.spcottawa.on.ca/sites/all/files/pdf/2009/Publications/Final-Immigrant-Report-2009.pdf (accessed on 14 August 2017).
- Statistics Canada. 2005. Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: A Portrait of Early Settlement Experiences. Available online: http://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/89-614-XIE/89-614-XIE2005001.pdf (accessed on 14 August 2017).
- Statistics Canada. 2017. Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables. Available online: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/hlt-fst/imm/Table.cfm?Lang=E&T=21&Geo=01 (accessed on 13 April 2018).
- Tam, Moy Wong. 2003. National Settlement Service and Standards Framework. Discussion paper developed for National Settlement Conference II, Calgary—October 2–5. Available online: http://www.orgwise.ca/sites/osi.ocasi.org.stage/files/resources/National%20Settlement%20Service%20and%20Standards%20Framework.pdf (accessed on 1 March 2017).
- Thomson, Matt. 2010. Literature Review: Outcomes and Indicators of Welcoming and Inclusive Communities and Workplaces Initiatives. Available online: http://www.amssa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/WelcomeBC_report.pdf (accessed on 6 March 2017).
- TRIEC. 2018a. Canada Looked Upon as Leader When It Comes to Immigration and Settlement Policy. Available online: http://triec.ca/canada-looked-upon-as-leader-when-it-comes-to-immigration-and-settlement-policy/ (accessed on 10 April 2018).
- TRIEC. 2018b. To Employment: Services for Skilled Immigrants in the Toronto Region. Available online: http://maytree.com/docs/Mapping_september_2006.pdf (accessed on 31 January 2018).
- Trumper, Ricardo, and Lloyd L. Wong. 2010. Temporary workers in Canada: A national perspective. Canadian Issues Spring: 83–89. [Google Scholar]
- Valtonen, Kathleen. 2008. Social Work and Migration: Immigrant and Refugee Settlement and Integration. Burlington: Ashgate. [Google Scholar]
- Vang, Zoua M., Jennifer Sigouin, Astrid Flenon, and Alain Gagnon. 2017. Are Immigrants Healthier than Native-Born Canadians? A Systematic Review of the Healthy Immigrant Effect in Canada. Ethnicity & Health 22: 209–33. [Google Scholar]
- Weiner, Nan. 2008. Breaking down barriers to labour market integration of newcomers in Toronto. IRPP Choices 14: 1–37. [Google Scholar]
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Kaushik, V.; Drolet, J. Settlement and Integration Needs of Skilled Immigrants in Canada. Soc. Sci. 2018, 7, 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7050076
Kaushik V, Drolet J. Settlement and Integration Needs of Skilled Immigrants in Canada. Social Sciences. 2018; 7(5):76. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7050076Chicago/Turabian Style
Kaushik, Vibha, and Julie Drolet. 2018. "Settlement and Integration Needs of Skilled Immigrants in Canada" Social Sciences 7, no. 5: 76. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7050076