- freely available
Soc. Sci. 2016, 5(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci5020020
- Selling of crude oil and oil products to the Assad regime, rebels, and the world market through Turkey;
- Donations from financially strong individuals, mainly from countries in the Arabian Peninsula;
- Bank looting and extortion;
- Ransom money from the kidnapping of journalists and other people from Western countries;
- Returns from the sale of abducted women and girls;
- Trade in stolen cultural goods.
2. History of Oil and Gas Exploration—The Distribution of Oil and Gas Fields
3. Trend of Oil Production (1968–2011)
4. Deterioration of Production during the on-Going Civil War (2011–2015)
5. Geographical Distribution of the Control of Syrian Oil and Gas Fields by Forces
5.1. Oil and Gas under the Control of IS
The Sale of Oil and Gas and Smuggling by IS
5.2. Oil and Gas under the Control of Kurds
5.3. Oil and Gas under the Control of Assad Regime
6. Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Refineries and Transportation
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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|Deir ez Zor||Omar||15,000|
|Ward, Ahmer, Akash, and Ratka||7000|
|Tayyani, Maleh, Sijan, and Azraq||12,000|
|Raqq||Wahab, Habbari, Deilla, and Fadeh||2000|
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